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      Climate, cryosphere and carbon cycle controls on Southeast Atlantic orbital-scale carbonate deposition since the Oligocene (30–0 Ma)

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          Abstract

          Abstract. The evolution of the Cenozoic Icehouse over the past 30 million years (Myr) from a unipolar to a bipolar world is broadly known; however, the exact development of orbital-scale climate variability is less well understood. Highly resolved records of carbonate (CaCO3) content provide insight into the evolution of regional and global climate, cryosphere and carbon cycle dynamics. Here, we generate the first Southeast Atlantic CaCO3 content record spanning the last 30 Myr, derived from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) ln(Ca/Fe) data collected at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1264 (Angola Basin side of the Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic Ocean). We present a comprehensive and continuous depth and age model for the entirety of Site 1264 (~316 m; 30 Myr), which constitutes a key reference framework for future palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanographic studies at this site. We identify three phases with distinctly different orbital controls on Southeast Atlantic CaCO3 deposition, corresponding to major developments in climate, the cryosphere and/or the carbon cycle: 1) strong ~110 kyr eccentricity pacing prevails during Oligo-Miocene global warmth (~30–13 Ma); 2) increased eccentricity-modulated precession pacing appears after the mid Miocene Climate Transition (mMCT) (~14–8 Ma); 3) strong obliquity pacing appears in the late Miocene (~7.7–3.3 Ma) following the increasing influence of high-latitude processes. The lowest CaCO3 content (92–94 %) occur between 18.5–14.5 Ma, potentially reflecting dissolution caused by widespread early Miocene warmth and preceding Antarctic deglaciation across the Miocene Climate Optimum (~17–14.5 Ma) by 1.5 Myr. The emergence of precession-pacing of CaCO3 deposition at Site 1264 after ~14 Ma could signal a reorganisation of surface and/or deep-water circulation in this region following Antarctic reglaciation at the mMCT. The increased sensitivity to precession at Site 1264 is associated with an increase in mass accumulation rates (MARs) and reflects increased regional CaCO3 productivity and/or an influx of cooler, less corrosive deep-waters. The highest %CaCO3 and MARs indicate the late Miocene Biogenic Bloom (LMBB) occurs between ~7.8–3.3 Ma at Site 1264, which is broadly, but not exactly, contemporaneous with the LMBB in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The global expression of the LMBB may reflect an increased nutrient input into the global ocean resulting from enhanced aeolian dust and/or glacial/chemical weathering fluxes. Regional variability in the timing and amplitude of the LMBB may be driven by regional differences in cooling, continental aridification and/or changes in ocean circulation in the late Miocene.

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          Journal
          Copernicus GmbH
          September 4 2020
          Article
          10.5194/cp-2020-108
          0ddd4db1-557c-4e63-9b75-9897b458c97a
          © 2020

          https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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