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      Child-Pugh Score Is an Independent Risk Factor for Immediate Bleeding after Colonoscopic Polypectomy in Liver Cirrhosis

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Post-polypectomy bleeding is the most common colonoscopic polypectomy complication. However, the risk of post-polypectomy bleeding in liver cirrhosis is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the risk of post-polypectomy bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.

          Materials and Methods

          We included 89 patients with liver cirrhosis who received colonoscopic polypectomy between January 2006 and October 2012. Three hundred forty-eight subjects without liver disease who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy comprised the control group. Risks of post-polypectomy bleeding were analyzed according to patient- and polyp-related factors.

          Results

          Among 89 patients, 75 (84.3%) were Child-Pugh class A, 10 (11.2%) were class B, and 4 (4.5%) were class C. Incidence of immediate post-polypectomy bleeding was significantly increased in cirrhosis with Child-Pugh class B or C compared to liver cirrhosis with Child-Pugh class A or control group [hazard ratio (HR) 3.5; p<0.001]. Polyp size (HR 3.6; p=0.032) and pedunculated polyps (HR 2.4; p=0.022) were also significant risk factors for immediate post-polypectomy bleeding in multivariate analysis.

          Conclusion

          Cirrhotic patients with Child-Pugh class B or C have a high risk of immediate post-polypectomy bleeding. Thus, endoscopists should be cautious about performing colonoscopic polypectomy in patients with Child-Pugh class B or C.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008.

          Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
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            Colonoscopic polypectomy and long-term prevention of colorectal-cancer deaths.

            In the National Polyp Study (NPS), colorectal cancer was prevented by colonoscopic removal of adenomatous polyps. We evaluated the long-term effect of colonoscopic polypectomy in a study on mortality from colorectal cancer. We included in this analysis all patients prospectively referred for initial colonoscopy (between 1980 and 1990) at NPS clinical centers who had polyps (adenomas and nonadenomas). The National Death Index was used to identify deaths and to determine the cause of death; follow-up time was as long as 23 years. Mortality from colorectal cancer among patients with adenomas removed was compared with the expected incidence-based mortality from colorectal cancer in the general population, as estimated from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, and with the observed mortality from colorectal cancer among patients with nonadenomatous polyps (internal control group). Among 2602 patients who had adenomas removed during participation in the study, after a median of 15.8 years, 1246 patients had died from any cause and 12 had died from colorectal cancer. Given an estimated 25.4 expected deaths from colorectal cancer in the general population, the standardized incidence-based mortality ratio was 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.80) with colonoscopic polypectomy, suggesting a 53% reduction in mortality. Mortality from colorectal cancer was similar among patients with adenomas and those with nonadenomatous polyps during the first 10 years after polypectomy (relative risk, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.1 to 10.6). These findings support the hypothesis that colonoscopic removal of adenomatous polyps prevents death from colorectal cancer. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
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              Transection of the oesophagus for bleeding oesophageal varices.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Yonsei Med J
                Yonsei Med. J
                YMJ
                Yonsei Medical Journal
                Yonsei University College of Medicine
                0513-5796
                1976-2437
                01 September 2014
                18 July 2014
                : 55
                : 5
                : 1281-1288
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Dr. Sung Pil Hong, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Korea. Tel: 82-2-2228-5201, Fax: 82-2-365-2125, SPHONG@ 123456yuhs.ac
                Article
                10.3349/ymj.2014.55.5.1281
                4108813
                25048486
                © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article
                Gastroenterology & Hepatology

                Medicine

                bleeding, colonoscopy, liver cirrhosis, colorectal polyps, polypectomy

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