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      Polycystic Ovary Syndrome :

      Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent disorder, representing the single most common endocrine-metabolic disorder in reproductive-aged women. Currently there are four recognized phenotypes of PCOS: 1) hyperandrogenism+oligo-anovulation+polycystic ovarian morphology; 2) hyperandrogenism+oligo-anovulation; 3) hyperandrogenism+polycystic ovarian morphology; and 4) oligo-anovulation+polycystic ovarian morphology, each with different long-term health and metabolic implications. Clinicians should clearly denote a patient's phenotype when making the diagnosis of PCOS. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a highly inherited complex polygenic, multifactorial disorder. Pathophysiologically abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion or action, ovarian folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, insulin secretion or action, and adipose tissue function, among others, have been described in PCOS. Women with PCOS are at increased risk for glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus; hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome; hypertension, dyslipidemia, vascular thrombosis, cerebrovascular accidents, and possibly cardiovascular events; subfertility and obstetric complications; endometrial atypia or carcinoma, and possibly ovarian malignancy; and mood and psychosexual disorders. The evaluation of patients suspected of having PCOS includes a thorough history and physical examination, assessment for the presence of hirsutism, ovarian ultrasonography, and hormonal testing to confirm hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation as needed and to exclude similar or mimicking disorders. Therapeutic decisions in PCOS depend on the patients' phenotype, concerns, and goals, and should focus on 1) suppressing and counteracting androgen secretion and action, 2) improving metabolic status, and 3) improving fertility. However, despite significant progress in understanding the pathophysiology and diagnosis of the disorder over the past 20 years, the disorder remains underdiagnosed and misunderstood by many practitioners.

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          Most cited references42

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          The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance.

          Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
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            Clomiphene, metformin, or both for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome.

            The polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of infertility. Clomiphene and insulin sensitizers are used alone and in combination to induce ovulation, but it is unknown whether one approach is superior. We randomly assigned 626 infertile women with the polycystic ovary syndrome to receive clomiphene citrate plus placebo, extended-release metformin plus placebo, or a combination of metformin and clomiphene for up to 6 months. Medication was discontinued when pregnancy was confirmed, and subjects were followed until delivery. The live-birth rate was 22.5% (47 of 209 subjects) in the clomiphene group, 7.2% (15 of 208) in the metformin group, and 26.8% (56 of 209) in the combination-therapy group (P<0.001 for metformin vs. both clomiphene and combination therapy; P=0.31 for clomiphene vs. combination therapy). Among pregnancies, the rate of multiple pregnancy was 6.0% in the clomiphene group, 0% in the metformin group, and 3.1% in the combination-therapy group. The rates of first-trimester pregnancy loss did not differ significantly among the groups. However, the conception rate among subjects who ovulated was significantly lower in the metformin group (21.7%) than in either the clomiphene group (39.5%, P=0.002) or the combination-therapy group (46.0%, P<0.001). With the exception of pregnancy complications, adverse-event rates were similar in all groups, though gastrointestinal side effects were more frequent, and vasomotor and ovulatory symptoms less frequent, in the metformin group than in the clomiphene group. Clomiphene is superior to metformin in achieving live birth in infertile women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, although multiple birth is a complication. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00068861 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients.

              The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of the different pathological conditions causing clinically evident androgen excess and to document the degree of long-term success of suppressive and/or antiandrogen hormonal therapy in a large consecutive population of patients. All patients presenting for evaluation of symptoms potentially related to androgen excess between October 1987 and June 2002 were evaluated, and the data were maintained prospectively in a computerized database. For the assessment of therapeutic response, a retrospective review of the medical chart was performed, after the exclusion of those patients seeking fertility therapy only, or with inadequate follow-up or poor compliance. A total of 1281 consecutive patients were seen during the study period. Excluded from analysis were 408 patients in whom we were unable to evaluate hormonal status, determine ovulatory status, or find any evidence of androgen excess. In the remaining population of 873 patients, the unbiased prevalence of androgen-secreting neoplasms was 0.2%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient classic adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was 0.6%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) was 1.6%, hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome was 3.1%, idiopathic hirsutism was 4.7%, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was 82.0%. Fifty-nine (6.75%) patients had elevated androgen levels and hirsutism but normal ovulation. A total of 257 patients were included in the assessment of the response to hormonal therapy. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months (range, 6-155). Hirsutism improved in 86%, menstrual dysfunction in 80%, acne in 81%, and hair loss in 33% of patients. The major side effects noted were irregular vaginal bleeding (16.1%), nausea (13.0%), and headaches (12.6%); only 36.6% of patients never complained of side effects. In this large study of consecutive patients presenting with clinically evident androgen excess, specific identifiable disorders (NCAH, CAH, HAIRAN syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms) were observed in approximately 7% of subjects, whereas functional androgen excess, principally PCOS, was observed in the remainder. Hirsutism, menstrual dysfunction, or acne, but not alopecia, improved in the majority of patients treated with a combination suppressive therapy; although more than 60% experienced side effects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0029-7844
                2018
                August 2018
                : 132
                : 2
                : 321-336
                Article
                10.1097/AOG.0000000000002698
                29995717
                0e0e4f5a-9703-40e5-8f72-ff36bf6c359f
                © 2018
                History

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