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      Variáveis psicossociais associadas à cirurgia ortognática: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Translated title: Psychosocial variables associated with orthognathic surgery: a systematic literature review

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          Abstract

          A cirurgia ortognática é um tipo de tratamento orto-cirúrgico indicado para pacientes com deformidade dentofacial. Este tema tem ganhado repercussão na comunidade científica e, mais recentemente, no ramo das ciências psicológicas, pois as pessoas recorrem cada vez mais a este tipo de tratamento e os psicólogos começam a ser contratados para responderem às necessidades emocionais destes pacientes. Este artigo dedica-se a uma revisão da literatura, dos últimos nove anos, visando explorar particularmente se determinadas características psicossociais do paciente contribuem para a eficácia do tratamento ortocirúrgico. A nossa pesquisa identificou catorze estudos e os resultados são apresentados por setores: (a) fase pré-operatória, (b) fase pós-operatória a curto e médio prazo, (c) fase pós-operatória a longo-prazo. Verificámos que algumas características dos pacientes e uma relação de proximidade estabelecida com os profissionais de saúde parecem contribuir para a satisfação, porém, é apoio psicológico de caráter preventivo dos fatores de risco que parece determinar o sucesso do tratamento orto-cirúrgico. A demasiada valorização das expectativas de benefícios psicológicos, a insegurança na tomada de decisão, o desconhecimento dos custos emocionais da cirurgia, o pobre suporte social (ou a pressão dos familiares) e as perturbações psicopatológicas justificam a utilidade do apoio psicológico. Finalmente são apontadas algumas características psicológicas, positivas e negativas, do paciente assim como sugestões para futuras investigações.

          Translated abstract

          Orthognathic surgery is a type of orthodontic treatment recommended for patients with dentofacial deformities. This issue has grown in the scientific community and, more recently, in the field of psychological science since there is an increasing number of people resorting to this type of treatment and psychologists are being hired to meet emotional needs of such patients. This paper focuses on a review of the literature from the last nine years and seeks to determine if some of the psychosocial characteristics of the patient contribute to the effectiveness of orthodontic-surgical treatment. Our research identified 14 studies and the results are presented according to the following: (a) pre-surgical phase; (b) short-term and mid-term post-surgical phases; and (c) long-term post-surgical phase. We observed that some of the patient's characteristics and a closer patient-caregiver relationship seem to contribute to the satisfaction of the treatment. However, it is the quality of preventive psychological support towards risk factors that seems to determine the success of this orthodontic treatment. Overvaluation of expectations towards psychological benefits, insecurity in the decision making, lack of knowledge about the emotional costs of the surgery, lack of social support (or family pressure) as well as psychopathological disorders justify the need of psychological support. Finally, some positive and negative patient characteristics have been pointed out in this paper, and suggestions for future investigations have been made.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Psychological aspects of dentofacial esthetics and orthognathic surgery.

          The literature and the results of the survey clearly confirm that physical attractiveness plays a major role in the social life and interaction among individuals. Cosmetic improvement is a powerful motivating factor leading people to seek treatment. Those who believe that the rewards of facial improvement will enable them to lead more satisfying and comfortable lives should be encouraged to proceed with the treatment. However, it is absolutely essential that those contemplating treatment be counseled before-hand and fully informed on the prognosis, risks and hazards, advantages and disadvantages of such procedures before embarking on treatment.
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            Evaluation on the psychosocial status of orthognathic surgery patients

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              Psychological function in orthognathic surgical patients before and after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with rigid and wire fixation.

              A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the psychological function of patients who undergo surgical correction of a Class II malrelation with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with either wire or rigid fixation. Subjects were 31 male and 86 female patients referred by orthodontists. Psychopathological symptoms and psychological distress were measured with the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at the following times: before placement of orthodontic appliances, 1 to 2 weeks presurgery, and 1 week, 8 weeks, 6 months, and 2 years postsurgery. Patients' satisfaction with their surgical outcome was measured with a 3-item questionnaire. Results showed no statistically significant differences in psychological function or satisfaction between patients treated with wire or rigid fixation. Psychological function was within normal limits immediately before surgery. Psychological parameters did not determine patient satisfaction, even among patients who met an operational definition of "psychopathological caseness." Psychological symptoms and general distress increased modestly immediately after surgery for both groups and then progressively declined over the succeeding 2 years, eventually reaching levels that were significantly lower than presurgical levels. It was concluded that (1) rigid and wire fixation do not differ in their effects on psychological function and satisfaction; (2) patients who seek orthognathic surgery for a Class II malocclusion are psychologically healthy, ie, comparable to normal populations, immediately before surgery; (3) presurgical psychological function does not determine satisfaction with surgical outcome; and (4) psychological function tends to improve during the 2 years after surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade do Porto Portugal
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                prc
                Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica
                Psicol. Reflex. Crit.
                Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre )
                0102-7972
                2012
                : 25
                : 3
                : 477-490
                S0102-79722012000300007
                10.1590/S0102-79722012000300007

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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