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      Surgical management of presbyopia

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          Abstract

          Presbyopia, the gradual loss of accommodation that becomes clinically significant during the fifth decade of life, is a physiologic inevitability. Different technologies are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability; however, a number of limitations have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical presbyopia correction, such as optical and visual distortion, induced corneal ectasia, haze, anisometropy with monovision, regression of effect, decline in uncorrected distance vision, and the inherent risks with invasive techniques, limiting the development of an ideal solution. The correction of the presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update about current procedures available for presbyopia correction, their advantages, and disadvantages.

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          Most cited references 69

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          Global vision impairment due to uncorrected presbyopia.

          To evaluate the personal and community burdens of uncorrected presbyopia. We used multiple population-based surveys to estimate the global presbyopia prevalence, the spectacle coverage rate for presbyopia, and the community perception of vision impairment caused by uncorrected presbyopia. For planning purposes, the data were extrapolated for the future using population projections extracted from the International Data Base of the US Census Bureau. It is estimated that there were 1.04 billion people globally with presbyopia in 2005, 517 million of whom had no spectacles or inadequate spectacles. Of these, 410 million were prevented from performing near tasks in the way they required. Vision impairment from uncorrected presbyopia predominantly exists (94%) in the developing world. Uncorrected presbyopia causes widespread, avoidable vision impairment throughout the world. Alleviation of this problem requires a substantial increase in the number of personnel trained to deliver appropriate eye care together with the establishment of sustainable, affordable spectacle delivery systems in developing countries. In addition, given that people with presbyopia are at higher risk for permanently sight-threatening conditions such as glaucoma and diabetic eye disease, primary eye care should include refraction services as well as detection and appropriate referral for these and other such conditions.
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            Dissatisfaction after multifocal intraocular lens implantation.

            To analyze the reasons for patient dissatisfaction after phacoemulsification with multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and the outcomes after intervention. Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This retrospective review comprised eyes of patients dissatisfied with visual outcomes after multifocal IOL implantation. Outcomes analyzed included type of visual complaint, treatment modality for each complaint, and degree of clinical improvement after intervention. Thirty-two patients (43 eyes) reported unwanted visual symptoms after multifocal IOL implantation, including in 28 eyes (65%) with an AcrySof ReSTOR IOL and 15 (35%) with a ReZoom IOL. Thirty patients (41 eyes) reported blurred vision, 15 (18 eyes) reported photic phenomena, and 13 (16 eyes) reported both. Causes of blurred vision included ametropia (12 eyes, 29%), dry eye syndrome (6 eyes, 15%), posterior capsule opacification (PCO) (22 eyes, 54%), and unexplained etiology (1 eye, 2%). Causes of photic phenomena included IOL decentration (2 eyes, 12%), retained lens fragment (1 eye, 6%), PCO (12 eyes, 66%), dry-eye syndrome (1 eye, 2%), and unexplained etiology (2 eyes, 11%). Photic phenomena attributed to PCO also caused blurred vision. Thirty-five eyes (81%) had improvement with conservative treatment. Five eyes (12%) did not have improvement despite treatment combinations. Three eyes (7%) required IOL exchange. Complaints of blurred vision and photic phenomena after multifocal IOL implantation were effectively managed with appropriate treatment. Few eyes (7%) required IOL exchange. Neodymium:YAG capsulotomy should be delayed until it has been determined that IOL exchange will not be necessary.
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              Associations of presbyopia with vision-targeted health-related quality of life.

              To evaluate the associations of presbyopia and its correction, particularly monovision optical correction, with vision-targeted health-related quality of life. The National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life (NEI-RQL) Instrument was prospectively self-administered by subjects from 6 medical centers in the following age and correction categories: subjects with emmetropia younger than 45 years (n = 75), subjects with emmetropia aged 45 years or older (n = 38), and subjects with ametropia aged 45 years or older without monovision (n = 486) or corrected with monovision (n = 38). Differences in the 13 NEI-RQL Instrument subscale scores among subjects in the 4 groups were examined. The age of 45 years or older was used as a surrogate for presbyopia. A comparison of older (age > or =45 years) vs younger (age <45 years) persons with emmetropia suggests that presbyopia was associated with reduced scores in 7 of 13 subscales (P<.05). In those aged 45 years or older, correction of presbyopia with monovision was associated with statistically significantly better scores on 3 subscales (expectations, dependence on correction, and appearance) compared with single-vision correction. One subscale (dependence on correction) showed worsening scores with increasing age without adjustment for need or type of correction. Older persons with monovision correction had significantly worse scores than younger subjects with emmetropia on all subscales except suboptimal correction and appearance. Presbyopia is associated with worse vision-targeted health-related quality of life compared with younger subjects with emmetropia. Monovision correction of presbyopia is related to some improvements in health-related quality of life, but it is still worse than that for younger subjects with emmetropia in several areas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clinical Ophthalmology
                Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-5467
                1177-5483
                2012
                2012
                06 September 2012
                : 6
                : 1459-1466
                Affiliations
                Division of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: André AM Torricelli, 3300 Av Vereador Jose Diniz, conjunto, 208, São Paulo, CEP 04604-006, Brazil, Tel +55 11 5533 4900, Email andre_torri39@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                Article
                opth-6-1459
                10.2147/OPTH.S35533
                3460711
                23055664
                0f638e95-f64d-48f3-bde9-b1f32b74dc76
                © 2012 Torricelli et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Ophthalmology & Optometry

                surgical correction, treatment, presbyopia

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