Most conventional materials have a microstructure comprised of minute, usually coarse, grains. One branch of materials science targets this microstructure as a means to manipulating the mechanical properties of materials to offer greater strength and hardness. Dr Takahiro Kunimine, an Assistant Professor from the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Kanazawa University, has recently completed a project focused on using severe plastic deformation (SPD) to develop nanostructured materials with high strength. His current project has been focusing on processing functionally graded materials with high hardness and toughness by additive manufacturing. These works, supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant, led to the development of much stronger materials.