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      Identification and Characterization of the Dermal Panniculus Carnosus Muscle Stem Cells

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          The dermal Panniculus carnosus (PC) muscle is important for wound contraction in lower mammals and represents an interesting model of muscle regeneration due to its high cell turnover. The resident satellite cells (the bona fide muscle stem cells) remain poorly characterized. Here we analyzed PC satellite cells with regard to developmental origin and purported function. Lineage tracing shows that they originate in Myf5 + , Pax3/ Pax7 + cell populations. Skin and muscle wounding increased PC myofiber turnover, with the satellite cell progeny being involved in muscle regeneration but with no detectable contribution to the wound-bed myofibroblasts. Since hematopoietic stem cells fuse to PC myofibers in the absence of injury, we also studied the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to the PC satellite cell compartment, demonstrating that cells of donor origin are capable of repopulating the PC muscle stem cell niche after irradiation and bone marrow transplantation but may not fully acquire the relevant myogenic commitment.

          Graphical Abstract


          • PC satellite cells originate from Myf5 + , Pax3/Pax7 + cell lineages
          • Skin and muscle wounding increase PC myofiber turnover
          • Donor bone marrow cells repopulate the PC satellite niche after BMT
          • Dermis-derived myogenesis originates from the PC satellite cell population


          In this article, Izeta, García-Parra, and colleagues show that the panniculus carnosus (PC) muscle satellite cells originate from a somitic Pax3/7-positive and Myf5-positive lineage, like limb and body wall skeletal muscles. Through lineage tracing, cell sorting, and ablation experiments they unambiguously demonstrate that the only dermal cells with a myogenic potential are the PC satellite cells and their progeny.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository.

           R. Edgar (2002)
          The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) project was initiated in response to the growing demand for a public repository for high-throughput gene expression data. GEO provides a flexible and open design that facilitates submission, storage and retrieval of heterogeneous data sets from high-throughput gene expression and genomic hybridization experiments. GEO is not intended to replace in house gene expression databases that benefit from coherent data sets, and which are constructed to facilitate a particular analytic method, but rather complement these by acting as a tertiary, central data distribution hub. The three central data entities of GEO are platforms, samples and series, and were designed with gene expression and genomic hybridization experiments in mind. A platform is, essentially, a list of probes that define what set of molecules may be detected. A sample describes the set of molecules that are being probed and references a single platform used to generate its molecular abundance data. A series organizes samples into the meaningful data sets which make up an experiment. The GEO repository is publicly accessible through the World Wide Web at
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              Asymmetric self-renewal and commitment of satellite stem cells in muscle.

              Satellite cells play a central role in mediating the growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, whether satellite cells are stem cells, committed progenitors, or dedifferentiated myoblasts has remained unclear. Using Myf5-Cre and ROSA26-YFP Cre-reporter alleles, we observed that in vivo 10% of sublaminar Pax7-expressing satellite cells have never expressed Myf5. Moreover, we found that Pax7(+)/Myf5(-) satellite cells gave rise to Pax7(+)/Myf5(+) satellite cells through apical-basal oriented divisions that asymmetrically generated a basal Pax7(+)/Myf5(-) and an apical Pax7(+)/Myf5(+) cells. Prospective isolation and transplantation into muscle revealed that whereas Pax7(+)/Myf5(+) cells exhibited precocious differentiation, Pax7(+)/Myf5(-) cells extensively contributed to the satellite cell reservoir throughout the injected muscle. Therefore, we conclude that satellite cells are a heterogeneous population composed of stem cells and committed progenitors. These results provide critical insights into satellite cell biology and open new avenues for therapeutic treatment of neuromuscular diseases.

                Author and article information

                Stem Cell Reports
                Stem Cell Reports
                Stem Cell Reports
                01 September 2016
                13 September 2016
                01 September 2016
                : 7
                : 3
                : 411-424
                [1 ]Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Bioengineering Area, Instituto Biodonostia, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
                [2 ]Neuroscience Area, Instituto Biodonostia, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
                [3 ]CIBERNED, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid 28029, Spain
                [4 ]INSERM U955-E10, Université Paris Est, Faculté de Médicine, IMRB U955-E10, Creteil 94000, France
                [5 ]Molecular Embryology Team, Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo, Sevilla 41013, Spain
                [6 ]Laboratorio de Neurobiología Comparada, Instituto Cavanilles, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia 46980, Spain
                [7 ]Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, UPV-EHU, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
                [8 ]Animal Facility and Experimental Surgery, Instituto Biodonostia, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
                [9 ]Computational Biology and Systems Biomedicine, Instituto Biodonostia, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
                [10 ]IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao 48013, Spain
                [11 ]INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, Université de Toulouse, 31077 Toulouse, France
                [12 ]INRA, UMR792, Ingénierie des Systèmes Biologiques et des Procédés, 31400 Toulouse, France
                [13 ]CNRS, UMR5504, 31400 Toulouse, France
                [14 ]Immunology and Oncology Department, Spanish National Center for Biotechnology (CNB-CSIC), Madrid 28049, Spain
                [15 ]Cellular Oncology Group, Oncology Area, Instituto Biodonostia, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
                [16 ]Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, Department of Neurosciences, UPV-EHU, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
                [17 ]Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Donostia, San Sebastián 20014, Spain
                [18 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, Tecnun-University of Navarra, San Sebastián 20009, Spain
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author pgarcia@
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author ander.izeta@
                © 2016 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (



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