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      Relation between systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral muscle mass, and strength in limb muscles in stable COPD patients

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          The aim of this study was to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory mediators and peripheral muscle mass and strength in COPD patients. Fifty-five patients (69% male; age: 64±9 years) with mild/very severe COPD (defined as forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV 1] =54%±23%) were evaluated. We evaluated serum concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α. Peripheral muscle mass was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT); midthigh cross-sectional muscle area (MTCSA) and midarm cross-sectional muscle area (MACSA) were obtained. Quadriceps, triceps, and biceps strength were assessed through the determination of the one-repetition maximum. The multiple regression results, adjusted for age, sex, and FEV 1%, showed positive significant association between MTCSA and leg extension (0.35 [0.16, 0.55]; P=0.001), between MACSA and triceps pulley (0.45 [0.31, 0.58]; P=0.001), and between MACSA and biceps curl (0.34 [0.22, 0.47]; P=0.001). Plasma TNF-α was negatively associated with leg extension (−3.09 [−5.99, −0.18]; P=0.04) and triceps pulley (−1.31 [−2.35, −0.28]; P=0.01), while plasma CRP presented negative association with biceps curl (−0.06 [−0.11, −0.01]; P=0.02). Our results showed negative association between peripheral muscle mass (evaluated by CT) and muscle strength and that systemic inflammation has a negative influence in the strength of specific groups of muscles in individuals with stable COPD. This is the first study showing association between systemic inflammatory markers and strength in upper limb muscles.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Body composition and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Survival studies have consistently shown significantly greater mortality rates in underweight and normal-weight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than in overweight and obese COPD patients. To compare the contributions of low fat-free mass and low fat mass to mortality, we assessed the association between body composition and mortality in COPD. We studied 412 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV, forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 36 +/- 14% of predicted (range: 19-70%). Body composition was assessed by using single-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Body mass index, fat-free mass index, fat mass index, and skeletal muscle index were calculated and related to recently developed reference values. COPD patients were stratified into defined categories of tissue-depletion pattern. Overall mortality was assessed at the end of follow-up. Semistarvation and muscle atrophy were equally distributed among disease stages, but the highest prevalence of cachexia was seen in GOLD stage IV. Forty-six percent of the patients (n = 189) died during a maximum follow-up of 5 y. Cox regression models, with and without adjustment for disease severity, showed that fat-free mass index (relative risk: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.96; P = 0.003) was an independent predictor of survival, but fat mass index was not. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression plots for cachexia and muscle atrophy did not differ significantly. Fat-free mass is an independent predictor of mortality irrespective of fat mass. This study supports the inclusion of body-composition assessment as a systemic marker of disease severity in COPD staging.
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            Peripheral muscle weakness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            Peripheral muscle weakness is commonly found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may play a role in reducing exercise capacity. The purposes of this study were to evaluate, in patients with COPD: (1) the relationship between muscle strength and cross-sectional area (CSA), (2) the distribution of peripheral muscle weakness, and (3) the relationship between muscle strength and the severity of lung disease. Thirty-four patients with COPD and 16 normal subjects of similar age and body mass index were evaluated. Compared with normal subjects, the strength of three muscle groups (p < 0.05) and the right thigh muscle CSA, evaluated by computed tomography (83.4 +/- 16.4 versus 109.6 +/- 15.6 cm2, p < 0.0001), were reduced in COPD. The quadriceps strength/thigh muscle CSA ratio was similar for the two groups. The reduction in quadriceps strength was proportionally greater than that of the shoulder girdle muscles (p < 0.05). Similar observations were made whether or not patients had been exposed to systemic corticosteroids in the 6-mo period preceding the study, although there was a tendency for the quadriceps strength/thigh muscle CSA ratio to be lower in patients who had received corticosteroids. In COPD, quadriceps strength and muscle CSA correlated positively with the FEV1 expressed in percentage of predicted value (r = 0.55 and r = 0. 66, respectively, p < 0.0005). In summary, the strength/muscle cross-sectional area ratio was not different between the two groups, suggesting that weakness in COPD is due to muscle atrophy. In COPD, the distribution of peripheral muscle weakness and the correlation between quadriceps strength and the degree of airflow obstruction suggests that chronic inactivity and muscle deconditioning are important factors in the loss in muscle mass and strength.
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              Muscle force during an acute exacerbation in hospitalised patients with COPD and its relationship with CXCL8 and IGF-I.

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with peripheral muscle weakness, which is caused by several factors. Acute exacerbations may contribute, but their impact on muscle force remains unclear. Correlations between peripheral muscle force and inflammatory and anabolic markers have never been studied in COPD. The effect of an acute exacerbation on quadriceps peak torque (QPT) was therefore studied in hospitalised patients, and the aforementioned correlations were examined in hospitalised and in stable patients. Lung function, respiratory and peripheral muscle force, and inflammatory and anabolic markers were assessed in hospitalised patients on days 3 and 8 of the hospital admission and 90 days later. The results on day 3 (n=34) were compared with those in clinically stable outpatients (n=13) and sedentary healthy elderly subjects (n=10). Hospitalised patients had lowest mean (SD) QPT (66 (22)% predicted) and highest median (IQR) levels of systemic interleukin-8 (CXCL8, 6.1 (4.5 to 8.3) pg/ml). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tended to be higher in healthy elderly subjects (p=0.09). QPT declined between days 3 and 8 in hospital (mean -5% predicted (95% CI -22 to 8)) and partially recovered 90 days after admission to hospital (mean 6% predicted (95% CI -1 to 23)). QPT was negatively correlated with CXCL8 and positively correlated with IGF-I and lung transfer factor in hospitalised and in stable patients. Peripheral muscle weakness is enhanced during an acute exacerbation of COPD. CXCL8 and IGF-I may be involved in the development of peripheral muscle weakness in hospitalised and in stable patients with COPD.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                06 August 2015
                : 10
                : 1553-1558
                [1 ]Botucatu Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Pneumology Area, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]Paulista State University, Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Marilia, São Paulo, Brazil
                [3 ]Federal University of Amazonas, Department of Physiotherapy, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Renata Ferrari, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento Clínica Médica, Distrito de Rubião Júnior, s/n CEP 18618-970, Botucatu/SP, Brazil, Tel +55 14 3880 1171, Fax +55 14 3882 2238, Email renataferrarifisio@
                © 2015 Ferrari et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                inflammation, skeletal muscle, x-ray computed tomography


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