The presence and distribution of bombesin (BBS)/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-like immunoreactivity (IR) was examined in the goldfish pituitary and forebrain. BBS/GRP-like IR nerve fibres were consistently observed throughout the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (); occasionally, BBS/GRP-like material was localized in cells and few fibres within the pars distalis. Within the goldfish forebrain, sparse, fine-beaded BBS/GRP-like IR fibres and few perikarya were detected in the preoptic hypothalamus. BBS/GRP-like IR material was also present in the ventro-posterior hypothalamus and the hypothalamic inferior lobes, and, in particular, within the nucleus lateral tuberis pars anterioris (NLTa) and nucleus lateral tuberis pars posterioris (NLTp), nucleus anterior tuberis (NAT), nucleus recessus lateralis (NRL), nucleus recessus posterioris (NRP), and the nucleus diffusus lobi inferioris (NDLI). Several BBS/GRP-like IR perikarya were observed in periventricular regions of the NLT, NRL, and NRP. Finally, BBS/GRP-like IR material was detected in the nucleus habenularis, the nucleus rotundus, several thalamic nuclei, and the optic tectum of the dorso-posterior diencephalon. The presence of BBS/ GRP-like IR material within the preoptic hypothalamus, hypophysial stalk, and in the pituitary suggests that BBS-like peptides may regulate pituitary hormone release in fish. Perifusion of goldfish pituitary fragments with initial pulses of 0.1,10,100 or 1,000 nMBBS stimulated both growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin (GtH-II) release. Repeated pulses of the same dose of BBS generally stimulated GH and GtH-II release to a similar magnitude. These studies provide initial evidence that BBS/GRP-like peptides are present within the central nervous system of teleost fish. The anatomical distribution of BBS/ GRP-like IR in goldfish hypothalamic feeding center supports our previous report indicating a role for BBS in the central regulation of food intake in fish. Additionally, the presence of BBS/GRP-like IR material in the pituitary and brain areas associated with the regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion, as well as evidence demonstrating a direct action of BBS at the level of the goldfish pituitary to modify GH and GtH-II secretion, indicates that BBS/ GRP-like peptides likely act to regulate pituitary hormone release in teleosts.