+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Growing to be Independent in an Interdependent Culture: A Reflection on the Cultural Adaptation of Creative and Expressive Arts Therapy in an Asian Global City Translated title: 在相互依存的文化中成长为独立的人: 对创造性和表达性艺术治疗于亚洲国际都会中的文化适应之反思

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Hong Kong is culturally unique. Although its Chinese culture is ingrained, it is also deeply saturated by Western culture due to its long history of Western governance. When considering this in relation to personal and cultural self-construal, the question arises of whether people in Hong Kong tend to view themselves as more independent or interdependent. This question is important for creative and expressive arts therapists because self-construal affects an individual’s motivations for emotional expression and self-development in relation to others, which then affects how arts therapists can encourage individuals to express emotions and grow towards independence and self-actualization. Various clashes may arise between independent and interdependent cultures due to their different life emphases. Therefore, when adapting the skills and knowledge of creative and expressive arts therapy to an interdependent culture, full attention must be paid to supporting individuals in such a culture to discover the optimal balance of the self in relation to others and the community at large, while also considering the dynamic changes in the culture itself over time.

          Translated abstract

          香港具有独特的文化。尽管中国文化根深蒂固,由于长时间受到西方的统治,香港文化亦受到西方文化的深度熏陶和浸润。基于这点,当我们探讨个体和文化自我观念的建构时,我们会遇到「香港人到底是倾向于将自己视为较独立的,还是较相互依存」的命题。这个命题对创造性和表达性艺术治疗很重要,原因是自我观念会影响个人尤其是与人相处时的情感表达和自我发展的动机和取向,对艺术治疗师能够如何鼓励个人表达情感以让个体朝着独立和实现自我的方向成长有着重要影响。还有,生活重点在人生的不同阶段会有所不同,独立和相互依存文化之间的角力或会造成各种冲突。因此,于相互依存的文化下应用创造性和表达性艺术治疗的技巧和知识时,我们必须加倍注意如何让个人在发展个体自我的同时能够与他人和整个社会状况取得平衡,以符合相互依存的文化环境; 并同时须考虑到文化本身亦会随着时间不断变化而出现各种改变。

          Related collections

          Most cited references 24

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.

          Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Situating Psychological Well-Being: Exploring the Cultural Roots of Its Theory and Research

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Beyond the 'east-west' dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhood.

              Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record

                Author and article information

                Creative Arts in Education and Therapy
                Eastern and Western Perspectives
                Translated title: 创造性艺术教育及治疗-东西方视角 :
                Inspirees Education Group (The Netherlands )
                February 2021
                : 6
                : 2
                : 171-178
                The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                Copyright © 2020 Inspirees International

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic License (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/

                Custom metadata


                Comment on this article