+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Serratia spp. and Citrobacter spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Nosocomial Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Citrobacter freundii


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          In many countries including Japan, the status of emerging antimicrobial resistance among Serratia spp. and Citrobacter spp. in companion animals remains unknown because these genera are rarely isolated from animals. In this study, 30 Serratia spp. and 23 Citrobacter spp. isolates from companion animals underwent susceptibility testing for 10 antimicrobials. Phenotypic and genetic approaches were used to identify the mechanisms of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). Subsequently, ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. strains underwent multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A significantly higher rate (34.8%) of ESC resistance was observed in Citrobacter spp. isolates than in Serratia spp. isolates (0%). ESC resistance was detected in five C. freundii strains, two C. portucalensis strains, and one C. koseri strain. All of the ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. strains harbored CMY-type and/or DHA-type AmpC β-lactamases. Three C. freundii strains harbored the CTX-M-3-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Notably, the three blaCTX-3-producing and two blaCMY-117-bearing C. freundii strains (obtained from different patients in one hospital) had the same sequence type (ST156 and ST18, respectively) and similar PFGE profiles. We believe that ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens in veterinary medicine. Therefore, infection control in animal hospitals is essential to prevent dissemination of these resistant pathogens.

          Related collections

          Most cited references36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Detection of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC  -Lactamase Genes in Clinical Isolates by Using Multiplex PCR

            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Detection of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae: a challenge for diagnostic microbiological laboratories.

            Carbapenemase-producing bacteria have now spread all over the world. Infections caused by those bacteria are difficult to treat. Therefore, there is an urgent need for accurate and fast detection of carbapenemases in diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize screening methods for suspected isolates, direct assays for confirmation of carbapenemase activity (e.g. the Carba NP test and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry carbapenem hydrolysis assay), inhibitor-based methods for carbapenemase classification, and molecular-genetic techniques for precise identification of carbapenemase genes. We also propose a workflow for carbapenemase identification in diagnostic laboratories.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Citrobacter infections in a general hospital: characteristics and outcomes.

              In this investigation, we sought to investigate the characteristics of Citrobacter spp. infections. A retrospective cohort study in a 700-bed, tertiary care, university hospital was carried out during the period from June 1994 to January 2006. Seventy-eight patients (70 adults) with Citrobacter spp. isolates were identified. C. freundii was more common (71.8%), followed by C. koseri (23.1%) and C. braakii (3.8%). The most common associated clinical syndromes were urinary tract infections (52.6% of cases, including eight cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria), as well as intra-abdominal (14.1%), surgical site (7.7%), skin and soft tissue (6.4%), and respiratory tract infections (6.4%). In 29.5% of patients, Citrobacter spp. isolates were associated to polymicrobial infections, principally at sites other than the urinary tract. Antibiograms of 38 consecutive Citrobacter spp. isolates (29 C. freundii) were available. Most active agents were colistin (100%), fosfomycin (100%), imipenem (97.4%), gentamicin (89.5%), nitrofurantoin (89.5%), ciprofloxacin (80.6%), and cefepime (73.7%). Most patients (82.1%) had at least one underlying illness. Combination antimicrobial therapy was administered in 28.2% of cases. One patient died during hospitalization. The length of hospital stay was longer in patients with polymicrobial compared to monomicrobial infections (23 versus 13 days, respectively, p = 0.02). The isolation of Citrobacter species, although rather infrequent, was clinically relevant in the great majority of cases. Further attention should be paid to these pathogens.

                Author and article information

                28 February 2019
                March 2019
                : 7
                : 3
                : 64
                [1 ]Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan; takae.shimizu@ 123456ani-com.com
                [2 ]Anicom Specialty Medical Institute Inc., Kanagawa 231-0033, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan; ikazo-h@ 123456tottori-u.ac.jp
                [4 ]Miyamoto Animal Hospital, Yamaguchi 753-0851, Japan; v008tm@ 123456yamaguchi-u.ac.jp (Y.K.); miya629@ 123456c-able.ne.jp (T.M.)
                [5 ]Sanritsu Zelkova Laboratory, Tokyo 135-0011, Japan; y-tsuyuki@ 123456san-g.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: k-harada@ 123456tottori-u.ac.jp ; Tel.: +81-857-31-5432
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 21 January 2019
                : 27 February 2019
                Brief Report

                serratia spp.,citrobacter spp.,companion animals,extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance,nosocomial dissemination


                Comment on this article