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      Gastrectomía en manga laparoscópica para el tratamiento de la obesidad mórbida

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          Abstract

          La obesidad es el resultado de un desbalance entre la ingesta calórica y el gasto energético. La obesidad mórbida incluye pacientes con índice de masa corporal mayor a 35 con co-morbilidades asociadas o con índices mayores de 40 sin co-morbilidades. Estos pacientes no logran pérdidas del exceso de peso sostenido cuando lo intentan a través de tratamiento médico, por ello el tratamiento quirúrgico es la única opción que permite la pérdida de peso efectiva a largo plazo. La gastrectomía en manga permite resecar la porción donde predomina la producción de grelina: hormona orexígena involucrada en la regulación del apetito, proporcionando un efecto adicional al restrictivo derivado de la disminución del volumen gástrico. Se incluyeron 11 pacientes en el trabajo 36 % hombres y 64 % mujeres. El IMC promedio fue de 42 kg/m2, las morbilidades la padecían el 54 % de los pacientes y las más frecuentes fueron dislipidemia e hipertensión, tiempo operatorio promedio fue de 90 min, hubo una sola complicación mayor que ameritó conversión y la evolución posoperatoria fue estupenda con pérdidas del exceso de peso de 66 % y disminución del IMC de 25 % en promedio a los seis meses, con mejoría del 100 % de las morbilidades. La gastrectomía en manga es un procedimiento efectivo, sencillo, reproducible, con escasa morbilidad que mantiene la fisiología del vaciamiento gástrico con la adición de la influencia hormonal a través de la disminución de la producción de grelina y otros mecanismos hormonales que participan en la regulación del apetito y la saciedad.

          Translated abstract

          The obesity is the result of a trouble between the caloric ingestion and the energetic expense. The morbid obesity includes patients with index of corporal bigger mass than 35 with associate co-morbidities or with major indexes of 40 without co-morbidities. These patients do not achieve losses of the supported overweight when they try it across medical treatment, for it the surgical treatment is the unique option that allows the effective long-term loss of weight. The gastrectomía in sleeve allows to resect the portion where it predominates over the production of ghrelina: orexígen hormone involved in the regulation of the appetite, providing an additional effect to the restrictive derivative of the decrease of the gastric volume. 11 patients included in the clinical trial 36 % men and 64 % women. The average IMC was of 42 kg/m2, the morbidities were suffering 54 % of the patients and the most frequent were dislipidemia and hypertension, operative average time was 90 minutes, there was an alone major complication that deserved conversion and the evolution post operative was marvellous with losses of the overweight of 66 % and decrease of the IMC of 25 % in average to six months, with improvement of 100 % of the morbidities. The gastrectomía in sleeve is an effective, simple, reproducible procedure, with scanty morbidity that supports the physiology of the gastric voidance with the addition of the hormonal influence across the decrease of the production of grelina and other hormonal mechanisms that take part in the regulation of the appetite and the satiety.

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          Most cited references30

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          Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery.

          Weight loss is associated with short-term amelioration and prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular risk, but whether these benefits persist over time is unknown. The prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects Study involved obese subjects who underwent gastric surgery and contemporaneously matched, conventionally treated obese control subjects. We now report follow-up data for subjects (mean age, 48 years; mean body-mass index, 41) who had been enrolled for at least 2 years (4047 subjects) or 10 years (1703 subjects) before the analysis (January 1, 2004). The follow-up rate for laboratory examinations was 86.6 percent at 2 years and 74.5 percent at 10 years. After two years, the weight had increased by 0.1 percent in the control group and had decreased by 23.4 percent in the surgery group (P<0.001). After 10 years, the weight had increased by 1.6 percent and decreased by 16.1 percent, respectively (P<0.001). Energy intake was lower and the proportion of physically active subjects higher in the surgery group than in the control group throughout the observation period. Two- and 10-year rates of recovery from diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and hyperuricemia were more favorable in the surgery group than in the control group, whereas recovery from hypercholesterolemia did not differ between the groups. The surgery group had lower 2- and 10-year incidence rates of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia than the control group; differences between the groups in the incidence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension were undetectable. As compared with conventional therapy, bariatric surgery appears to be a viable option for the treatment of severe obesity, resulting in long-term weight loss, improved lifestyle, and, except for hypercholesterolemia, amelioration in risk factors that were elevated at baseline. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Weight loss, appetite suppression, and changes in fasting and postprandial ghrelin and peptide-YY levels after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective, double blind study.

            Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment in morbidly obese patients, leading to durable weight loss. In this prospective double blind study, we aim to evaluate and compare the effects of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on body weight, appetite, fasting, and postprandial ghrelin and peptide-YY (PYY) levels. After randomization, 16 patients were assigned to LRYGBP and 16 patients to LSG. Patients were reevaluated on the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th postoperative month. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast and in 6 patients in each group after a standard 420 kcal mixed meal. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) decreased markedly (P < 0.0001) and comparably after either procedure. Excess weight loss was greater after LSG at 6 months (55.5% +/- 7.6% vs. 50.2% +/- 6.5%, P = 0.04) and 12 months (69.7% +/- 14.6% vs. 60.5% +/- 10.7%, [P = 0.05]). After LRYGBP fasting ghrelin levels did not change significantly compared with baseline (P = 0.19) and did not decrease significantly after the test meal. On the other hand, LSG was followed by a marked reduction in fasting ghrelin levels (P < 0.0001) and a significant suppression after the meal. Fasting PYY levels increased after either surgical procedure (P < or = 0.001). Appetite decreased in both groups but to a greater extend after LSG. PYY levels increased similarly after either procedure. The markedly reduced ghrelin levels in addition to increased PYY levels after LSG, are associated with greater appetite suppression and excess weight loss compared with LRYGBP.
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              Stomach is a major source of circulating ghrelin, and feeding state determines plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity levels in humans.

              Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor, was isolated from rat stomach and is involved in a novel system for regulating GH release. Although previous studies in rodents suggest that ghrelin is also involved in energy homeostasis and that ghrelin secretion is influenced by feeding, little is known about plasma ghrelin in humans. To address this issue, we studied plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity levels and elucidated the source of circulating ghrelin and the effects of feeding state on plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity levels in humans. The plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity concentration in normal humans measured by a specific RIA was 166.0 +/- 10.1 fmol/ml. Northern blot analysis of various human tissues identified ghrelin mRNA found most abundantly in the stomach and plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity levels in totally gastrectomized patients were reduced to 35% of those in normal controls. Plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity levels were increased by 31% after 12-h fasting and reduced by 22% immediately after habitual feeding. In patients with anorexia nervosa, plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity levels were markedly elevated compared with those in normal controls (401.2 +/- 58.4 vs. 192.8 +/- 19.4 fmol/ml) and were negatively correlated with body mass indexes. We conclude that the stomach is a major source of circulating ghrelin and that plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity levels reflect acute and chronic feeding states in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rfm
                Revista de la Facultad de Medicina
                RFM
                Universidad Central de Venezuela. Facultad de Medicina. Comisión de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Medicina (Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela )
                0798-0469
                December 2009
                : 32
                : 2
                : 158-165
                Affiliations
                [02] orgnameHospital Universitario de Caracas Venezuela
                [04] orgnameHospital Universitario de Caracas orgdiv1Departamento de Nutrición y Dietética Venezuela
                [01] orgnameHospital Universitario de Caracas orgdiv1Instructor. Servicio- Cátedra de Cirugía III Venezuela
                [03] orgnameHospital Universitario de Caracas orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina Venezuela
                Article
                S0798-04692009000200012 S0798-0469(09)03200212
                11f593c5-faa9-416b-b0b6-629cd788a468

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 15 May 2005
                : 23 October 2009
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 19, Pages: 8
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículos Originales

                Morbid obesity,Bariatric surgery,Sleeve gastrectomy,Ghrelina,Obesidad mórbida,Cirugía bariátrica,Gastrectomía en manga,Grelina

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