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      Intestinal and hepatic coccidiosis among rabbits in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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          Background and Aim:

          The attention to rabbit meat production in Indonesia is comparatively less to other farm animals such as cattle and poultry industries. However, future prospect of rabbit to be seriously industrialized seemed quite promising due to rabbit is highly productive and has short reproduction cycle as well as generation interval. One of the diseases infecting many rabbits is coccidiosis caused by protozoan parasite, Eimeria spp. The infectious stage of Eimeria spp. presents ubiquitously in the environment and increases the risk of parasite transmission. Preventive methods such as vaccination are not yet fully developed, while sporadic treatment is not efficiently reduce the cases. In this study, Eimeria spp. infecting rabbits in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, were investigated with the aim for precise diagnosis to determine targeted treatment and as a baseline epidemiological data from rabbit in Indonesia.

          Materials and Methods:

          Sample collection was performed randomly for 3 months, from March 2017 to May 2017 and covered areas in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 750 samples were collected. Eimeria species identification was determined morphologically from the samples after sporulation in 2.5% potassium dichromate byCOCCIMORPH.


          Ten species of Eimeria spp. were identified in this study from the positive samples (527/750; 70.3%). Eimeria flavescens was present in 80% of the positive samples, Eimeria coeciola in 78%, Eimeria perforans in 61%, Eimeria exigua in 37%, Eimeria media in 33%, Eimeria stiedae in 31%, Eimeria irresidua in 12%, Eimeria magna in 11%, Eimeria intestinalis in 10%, and Eimeria piriformis in 10%. Coinfection as noted in 80% of the positive samples with 2-6 species in a specimen. E. flavescens and E. coeciola were the most prevalent among all Eimeria spp. (p≤0.0001).


          Eimeria spp. is detected in high prevalence among rabbit in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, with commonly occurs in mixed infections. In this paper, we describe Eimeria spp. that are circulating in Indonesia and present it as updated information to farmers and veterinarians. To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first information about rabbit coccidiosis in Indonesia.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Coccidia of rabbit: a review.

           M Pakandl (2009)
          This article summarises the current knowledge of the rabbit coccidia and the disease they cause. Various aspects, such as life cycles, localisation in the host, pathology and pathogenicity, immunity and control, are discussed.
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            Coccidiosis of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Egypt: light microscopic study.

            In the present study, the incidence and prevalence of coccidian infection among domestic rabbits in Egypt were investigated. Severe overall prevalence reaching 70% (70/100) was recorded. Eight species of Eimeria were detected. Mixed infection with three different species occurred most frequently. Eimeria intestinalis and Eimeria coecicola were generally the most predominant species. The complete life cycle of E. intestinalis was investigated. This study is the first to report coccidia in domestic rabbits in Egypt. Six species of Eimeria were reported for the first time.
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              Vaccination of rabbits against coccidiosis using precocious lines of Eimeria magna and Eimeria media in Benin.

              Three groups of twelve 35-day-old rabbits were used for the experiment. Two groups were vaccinated with a mixture of precocious lines of Eimeria magna and Eimeria media originating from corresponding wild strains isolated in Benin. One group benefited of a booster whereas the second one was kept without booster. A third non-vaccinated group was used as control. All groups were challenged per os with an equal mixture of the wild strains of E. magna and E. media at a dose of 104 oocysts per animal. Three weeks after the challenge inoculation, no case of diarrhoea was recorded in the two groups of vaccinated rabbits, as compared to the non-vaccinated rabbits that developed diarrhoea. No mortality was recorded in the three groups. During the patent period, oocyst output of vaccinated rabbits was significantly lower than that of control animals (P<0.01), confirming a good immunogenic characteristic of the precocious lines. No booster effect was noticed for the boost vaccinated group. The daily weigh gain of the two groups of vaccinated rabbits was significantly higher than that of the non-vaccinated rabbits (P<0.05). Consequently the precocious lines of Benin origin turned out to be immunogenic and therefore constitute good potential candidates for vaccine production for this country. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Vet World
                Vet World
                Veterinary World
                Veterinary World (India )
                August 2019
                15 August 2019
                : 12
                : 8
                : 1256-1260
                [1 ]Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
                [2 ]Department of Animal Science, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Penny Humaidah Hamid, e-mail: penny_hamid@ 123456ugm.ac.id Co-authors: SP: prastowo@ 123456staff.uns.ac.id , YPK: yuli_purwandari@ 123456mail.ugm.ac.id
                Copyright: © Hamid, et al.

                Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article

                coccidiosis, indonesia, rabbit


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