The attention to rabbit meat production in Indonesia is comparatively less to other farm animals such as cattle and poultry industries. However, future prospect of rabbit to be seriously industrialized seemed quite promising due to rabbit is highly productive and has short reproduction cycle as well as generation interval. One of the diseases infecting many rabbits is coccidiosis caused by protozoan parasite, Eimeria spp. The infectious stage of Eimeria spp. presents ubiquitously in the environment and increases the risk of parasite transmission. Preventive methods such as vaccination are not yet fully developed, while sporadic treatment is not efficiently reduce the cases. In this study, Eimeria spp. infecting rabbits in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, were investigated with the aim for precise diagnosis to determine targeted treatment and as a baseline epidemiological data from rabbit in Indonesia.
Sample collection was performed randomly for 3 months, from March 2017 to May 2017 and covered areas in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 750 samples were collected. Eimeria species identification was determined morphologically from the samples after sporulation in 2.5% potassium dichromate byCOCCIMORPH.
Ten species of Eimeria spp. were identified in this study from the positive samples (527/750; 70.3%). Eimeria flavescens was present in 80% of the positive samples, Eimeria coeciola in 78%, Eimeria perforans in 61%, Eimeria exigua in 37%, Eimeria media in 33%, Eimeria stiedae in 31%, Eimeria irresidua in 12%, Eimeria magna in 11%, Eimeria intestinalis in 10%, and Eimeria piriformis in 10%. Coinfection as noted in 80% of the positive samples with 2-6 species in a specimen. E. flavescens and E. coeciola were the most prevalent among all Eimeria spp. (p≤0.0001).
Eimeria spp. is detected in high prevalence among rabbit in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, with commonly occurs in mixed infections. In this paper, we describe Eimeria spp. that are circulating in Indonesia and present it as updated information to farmers and veterinarians. To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first information about rabbit coccidiosis in Indonesia.