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      Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?

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          Abstract

          Background

          This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM) (n=219) and a control group women with chronic pain (CP) without FM (n=116). The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort.

          Methods

          This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010.

          Results

          Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease ( P<0.01) and gynecologic surgery ( P<0.05) were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group.

          Conclusion

          This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic surgery. A larger prospective study of the relationship between gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM is warranted.

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          Most cited references 57

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          The complex role of estrogens in inflammation.

          There is still an unresolved paradox with respect to the immunomodulating role of estrogens. On one side, we recognize inhibition of bone resorption and suppression of inflammation in several animal models of chronic inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, we realize the immunosupportive role of estrogens in trauma/sepsis and the proinflammatory effects in some chronic autoimmune diseases in humans. This review examines possible causes for this paradox. This review delineates how the effects of estrogens are dependent on criteria such as: 1) the immune stimulus (foreign antigens or autoantigens) and subsequent antigen-specific immune responses (e.g., T cell inhibited by estrogens vs. activation of B cell); 2) the cell types involved during different phases of the disease; 3) the target organ with its specific microenvironment; 4) timing of 17beta-estradiol administration in relation to the disease course (and the reproductive status of a woman); 5) the concentration of estrogens; 6) the variability in expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta depending on the microenvironment and the cell type; and 7) intracellular metabolism of estrogens leading to important biologically active metabolites with quite different anti- and proinflammatory function. Also mentioned are systemic supersystems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the sensory nervous system, and the sympathetic nervous system and how they are influenced by estrogens. This review reinforces the concept that estrogens have antiinflammatory but also proinflammatory roles depending on above-mentioned criteria. It also explains that a uniform concept as to the action of estrogens cannot be found for all inflammatory diseases due to the enormous variable responses of immune and repair systems.
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            Prevalence and burden of migraine in the United States: data from the American Migraine Study II.

            To describe the prevalence, sociodemographic profile, and the burden of migraine in the United States in 1999 and to compare results with the original American Migraine Study, a 1989 population-based study employing identical methods. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 20 000 households in the United States. Each household member with severe headache was asked to respond to questions about symptoms, frequency, and severity of headaches and about headache-related disability. Diagnostic criteria for migraine were based on those of the International Headache Society. This report is restricted to individuals 12 years and older. Of the 43 527 age-eligible individuals, 29 727 responded to the questionnaire for a 68.3% response rate. The prevalence of migraine was 18.2% among females and 6.5% among males. Approximately 23% of households contained at least one member suffering from migraine. Migraine prevalence was higher in whites than in blacks and was inversely related to household income. Prevalence increased from aged 12 years to about aged 40 years and declined thereafter in both sexes. Fifty-three percent of respondents reported that their severe headaches caused substantial impairment in activities or required bed rest. Approximately 31% missed at least 1 day of work or school in the previous 3 months because of migraine; 51% reported that work or school productivity was reduced by at least 50%. Two methodologically identical national surveys in the United States conducted 10 years apart show that the prevalence and distribution of migraine have remained stable over the last decade. Migraine-associated disability remains substantial and pervasive. The number of migraineurs has increased from 23.6 million in 1989 to 27.9 million in 1999 commensurate with the growth of the population. Migraine is an important target for public health interventions because it is highly prevalent and disabling.
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              U.S. householder survey of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Prevalence, sociodemography, and health impact.

              Our objective was to obtain national data of the estimated prevalence, sociodemographic relationships, and health impact of persons with functional gastrointestinal disorders. We surveyed a stratified probability random sample of U.S. householders selected from a data base of a national market firm (National Family Opinion, Inc.). Questions were asked about bowel symptoms, sociodemographic associations, work absenteeism, and physician visits. The sampling frame was constructed to be demographically similar to the U.S. householder population based on geographic region, age of householder, population density, household income, and household size. Of 8250 mailings, 5430 were returned suitable for analysis (66% response). The survey assessed the prevalence of 20 functional gastrointestinal syndromes based on fulfillment of multinational diagnostic (Rome) criteria. Additional variables studied included: demographic status, work absenteeism, health care use, employment status, family income, geographic area of residence, population density, and number of persons in household. For this sample, 69% reported having at least one of 20 functional gastrointestinal syndromes in the previous three months. The symptoms were attributed to four major anatomic regions: esophageal (42%), gastroduodenal (26%), bowel (44%), and anorectal (26%), with considerable overlap. Females reported greater frequencies of globus, functional dysphagia, irritable bowel syndrome, functional constipation, functional abdominal pain, functional biliary pain and dyschezia; males reported greater frequencies of aerophagia and functional bloating. Symptom reporting, except for incontinence, declines with age, and low income is associated with greater symptom reporting. The rate of work/school absenteeism and physician visits is increased for those having a functional gastrointestinal disorder. Furthermore, the greatest rates are associated with those having gross fecal incontinence and certain more painful functional gastrointestinal disorders such as chronic abdominal pain, biliary pain, functional dyspepsia and IBS. Preliminary information on the prevalence, socio-demographic features and health impact is provided for persons who fulfill diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2015
                20 August 2015
                : 8
                : 561-569
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
                [2 ]Anesco Interventional Pain Institute, Margate, FL, USA
                [3 ]Miami Pain and Diagnostics, Miami, FL, USA
                [4 ]Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Florida International University Wertheim College of Medicine, University Park, FL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Larry Brooks, 3810 Hollywood Boulevard, Suite 2 Hollywood, FL 33021, USA, Tel +1 954 962 3888, Fax +1 954 962 3936, Email lbrooks1@ 123456med.miami.edu
                Article
                jpr-8-561
                10.2147/JPR.S86573
                4548754
                © 2015 Brooks et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                chronic pain, fibromyalgia, autoimmune, thyroid, sex hormones

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