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      Decrease in Brain Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activities during Infection and Inflammation of the Central Nervous System

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          The effect of infection and inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) on cytochrome-P450-dependent activities in brain, spinal cord and liver microsomes was determined. For this, two models were used: (1) the intracerebroventricularly injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model and (2) the experimental auto-immune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. In the LPS model, aminopyrine N-demethylase (AMND) and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities (both P450 dependent) were significantly decreased (35 and 20%, respectively) in brain microsomes. In the EAE model, only ECOD activity was significantly lower (18%). In the liver, a decrease in total P450, AMND and ECOD activities was only observed in the LPS model. In both models, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) was significantly elevated in brain and spinal cord tissues. In serum, TNF was only detectable in the LPS model. It is concluded that an infection or inflammation located in the CNS, which is accompanied by high TNF levels, results in a decrease in P450-dependent metabolism not only in the liver but in the brain as well.

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            Brain mitochondrial cytochromes P450: xenobiotic metabolism, presence of multiple forms and their selective inducibility.

            The capability of rat brain mitochondria to metabolize a variety of xenobiotics was examined. The presence of cytochrome P450 (P450) and associated monooxygenase activities were estimated in isolated rat brain mitochondria and compared with the corresponding activities in microsomes. Total P450 content in brain mitochondria from naive rats was twice that of the corresponding microsomal level. The ability of brain mitochondria to metabolize the potent carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine was more than twofold that of the corresponding microsomal activity, while the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity was significantly lower in mitochondria. Immunoblot experiments using antisera to purified rat liver microsomal P450s, namely P450 (2B1/2B2), P4501A1, and P4502E1, and purified phenobarbital-inducible rat brain P450, revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands in isolated brain mitochondria. These various antibodies to P450 inhibited the brain mitochondrial monooxygenase activities to significant, though varying extent. The addition of antiserum to microsomal NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase did not affect the mitochondrial P450 associated monooxygenase activities, although it completely inhibited the corresponding microsomal activities. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in twofold induction of total P450 content and the monooxygenase activities known to be mediated by P4502E1, such as N-nitrosodimethylamine-N-demethylase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase in brain mitochondria. Pretreatment of animals with phenobarbital resulted in the induction of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity in brain mitochondria. The study demonstrates the presence of multiple forms of P450 in the rat brain mitochondria, their inducibility, and their capability to metabolize xenobiotics.
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              Xenobiotic metabolism in human brain--presence of cytochrome P-450 and associated mono-oxygenases.

              The cytochromes P-450, a family of heme proteins, play an important role in the oxidation of drugs and carcinogens, as well as endogenous substrates. We report the presence of cytochrome P-450 and associated mono-oxygenase activity in human brain regions and their selective enrichment in the brainstem. Immunocytochemical studies on human medulla with antibodies raised to phenobarbital-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 indicate that the enzyme is primarily localized in the neuronal cell bodies and to a lesser extent in the axons. These observations indicate that the human brain could be involved in metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, mediated through cytochrome P-450.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 2000
                15 December 2000
                : 8
                : 3
                : 142-147
                aDepartment of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; bIstituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’ and cCNR-Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology Centre, Milan, Italy
                54274 Neuroimmunomodulation 2000;8:142–147
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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