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      El nacimiento en Cuba: análisis de la experiencia del parto medicalizado desde una perspectiva antropológica Translated title: Childbirth in Cuba: analysis of the experience of medically supervised delivery from an anthropological perspective

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          Abstract

          En Cuba, el conocimiento sobre el embarazo, el parto y el puerperio es deficiente actualmente, ya que el nacimiento ha sido abordado fundamentalmente como un evento médico, desde sus aristas clínicas. Su análisis desde las perspectivas teóricas de la Antropología Médica puede contribuir a incrementar la calidez en los servicios de atención, así como al empoderamiento de las mujeres y los hombres como los principales responsables de sus procesos reproductivos. El presente estudio investigó la experiencia y percepción sobre el nacimiento en tres hospitales de La Habana. Su propósito fue comprender las representaciones y prácticas relacionadas con el parto y describir la experiencia de las mujeres. Se utilizaron técnicas cualitativas de investigación: entrevistas y observación participante a 36 mujeres en parto, diez familiares y nueve obstetras. Los discursos fueron analizados según la Teoría Fundamentada. Todos los nacimientos tuvieron lugar con numerosas intervenciones médicas. La experiencia de la maternidad fue muy intensa. La participación de los hombres fue limitada. Desde la perspectiva antropológica el uso rutinario de las intervenciones médicas y las regulaciones institucionales descritas se consideran manifestaciones de violencia física y de género.

          Translated abstract

          Knowledge about pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum in Cuba is currently deficient. Childbirth has been fundamentally studied as a medical event from its clinical aspects. Analysis of the reproductive process from the Medical Anthropology perspective could contribute to healthcare services providing more humane treatment and empowerment for women and men as the persons primarily responsible for their reproductive processes. This study investigated the experience and perception of childbirth in three hospitals in Havana. The scope of this research was to understand the representation and practice of childbirth and to describe the experiences of women during this event. Qualitative investigation techniques were used, together with interviews and participant observation of 36 women in labor, ten family members and nine obstetricians. The qualitative data was analyzed using Grounded Theory methodology. All the childbirths occurred with numerous medical interventions and the maternity experience was very intense. The participation of men was limited. From the anthropological perspective the routine use of some medical interventions and the institutional regulations described are considered manifestations of physical and gender violence.

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          Metodología de la investigación

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            WHO principles of perinatal care: the essential antenatal, perinatal, and postpartum care course.

            World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and meta-analyses of controlled trials have concluded that inappropriate perinatal care and technology continue to be practiced widely throughout the world, despite the acceptance of evidence-based principles and care. The WHO Regional Office for Europe, in consultation with policy makers and reproductive health experts recently proposed ten "Principles of Perinatal Care," which have been endorsed by the reproductive health units of most member states. A comprehensive training program, based on the principles, is now being offered throughout the European region. This paper describes the development of the WHO principles and the WHO training course "Essential Antenatal, Perinatal and Postpartum Care." Together they provide an innovative model of evidence-based and psychosocially sensitive care for the future guidance of perinatal policy makers and caregivers worldwide.
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              Culture, Health and Illness

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                csc
                Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
                Ciênc. saúde coletiva
                ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                1413-8123
                1678-4561
                July 2012
                : 17
                : 7
                : 1893-1902
                Affiliations
                [02] orgnameEscuela Nacional de Salud Pública
                [01] La Habana orgnameUniversidad de La Habana orgdiv1Facultad de Biología orgdiv2Dpto. de Biología Animal y Humana Cuba dailys@ 123456fbio.uh.cu
                Article
                S1413-81232012000700029 S1413-8123(12)01700729
                10.1590/S1413-81232012000700029
                22872352
                131cf2f4-b7bb-47ac-94d8-4a44a0a63e5c

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 18 April 2011
                : 10 May 2011
                : 29 June 2011
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 10
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                SciELO Public Health

                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)

                Medical anthropology,Childbirth,Medically supervised delivery,medicalización,Nacimiento,Antropología Médica,Motherhood,parto,Labor,investigación cualitativa,maternidad,Qualitative research

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