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      A new Megophrys Kuhl & Van Hasselt (Amphibia, Megophryidae) from southeastern China

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          A new species of the genus Megophrys from Zhejiang Province, China is described. Molecular phylogenetic analyses supported the new taxon as an independent clade nested into the Megophrys clade and sister to M. lishuiensis . The new species could be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological characteristics: (1) small size (SVL 31.0–36.3 mm in male and 41.6 mm in female); (2) vomerine ridge present and vomerine teeth absent; (3) tongue not notched behind; (4) a small horn-like tubercle at the edge of each upper eyelid; (5) tympanum distinctly visible, rounded; (6) two metacarpal tubercles in hand; (7) relative finger lengths: II < I < IV < III; (8) toes with rudimentary webbing at bases; (9) heels overlapping when thighs are positioned at right angles to the body; (10) tibiotarsal articulation reaching tympanum to eye when leg stretched forward; (11) an internal single subgular vocal sac in male; (12) in breeding male, the nuptial pads with black nuptial spines on the dorsal bases of the first and second fingers.

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          Most cited references 69

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          A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification

           KL Gosner,  Gosner,  KL GOSNER (1960)
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            Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy.

            Hummingbirds are an important model system in avian biology, but to date the group has been the subject of remarkably few phylogenetic investigations. Here we present partitioned Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses for 151 of approximately 330 species of hummingbirds and 12 outgroup taxa based on two protein-coding mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4), flanking tRNAs, and two nuclear introns (AK1 and BFib). We analyzed these data under several partitioning strategies ranging between unpartitioned and a maximum of nine partitions. In order to select a statistically justified partitioning strategy following partitioned Bayesian analysis, we considered four alternative criteria including Bayes factors, modified versions of the Akaike information criterion for small sample sizes (AIC(c)), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and a decision-theoretic methodology (DT). Following partitioned maximum likelihood analyses, we selected a best-fitting strategy using hierarchical likelihood ratio tests (hLRTS), the conventional AICc, BIC, and DT, concluding that the most stringent criterion, the performance-based DT, was the most appropriate methodology for selecting amongst partitioning strategies. In the context of our well-resolved and well-supported phylogenetic estimate, we consider the historical biogeography of hummingbirds using ancestral state reconstructions of (1) primary geographic region of occurrence (i.e., South America, Central America, North America, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles), (2) Andean or non-Andean geographic distribution, and (3) minimum elevational occurrence. These analyses indicate that the basal hummingbird assemblages originated in the lowlands of South America, that most of the principle clades of hummingbirds (all but Mountain Gems and possibly Bees) originated on this continent, and that there have been many (at least 30) independent invasions of other primary landmasses, especially Central America.
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              The Amphibian Fauna of Thailand

               E H Taylor (1962)

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                16 January 2020
                : 904
                : 35-62
                [1 ] CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization and Ecological Restoration Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Chengdu China
                [2 ] Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China, Nanjing 210042, China Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China Nanjing China
                [3 ] Xianju Biodiversity Development Company Limited, Taizhou 317300, China Xianju Biodiversity Development Company Limited Taizhou China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jun Wu ( wujun@ 123456nies.org ), Bin Wang ( wangbin@ 123456cib.ac.cn )

                Academic editor: A. Herrel

                Bin Wang, Yan-Qing Wu, Jun-Wei Peng, Sheng-Chao Shi, Ning-Ning Lu, Jun Wu

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Demonstration Project on Biodiversity Conservation and Development of Xianju County Project Financed by AFD,Project supported by the biodiversity investigation, observation and assessment program (2019-2023) of Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China,the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDPB0202)
                Research Article
                Biodiversity &amp; Conservation
                China Seas


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