Background. Asthma and other allergic diseases as influenced by environmental and familial factors might be targeted using preventive measures. These diseases are a matter of some urgency in Ukraine because of the clinical, social and economic importance of childhood. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between prevalence of asthma, spastic bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, unspecified hypersensitization and some selected environmental and familial factors in a population sample of 6 to14-yrs old Western Ukraine schoolchildren. Methods. The data set of the study was collected using a questionnaire-based survey, containing the data of 4871 urban and rural children aged 6 to 14 years. Correlation of asthma and allergic disease with familial and environmental factors was examined by means of multivariate logistic regression. Results. Increased risk of asthma (1.7 %) was associated with the urban residence (OR=1.8; p=0.04) and high parental education (OR=1.8; p=0.02); spastic bronchitis (6.2%) – with parental allergy (OR=1.3; p=0.03); atopic eczema (6.2 %) – with younger age (OR=1.3; p=0.03), high parental education (OR=1.3; p=0.03), parental allergy (OR=1.4; p=0.02), tobacco smoke at home (OR=0.7; p=0.01) and household density (OR=0.6; p=0.001); diagnosis of unspecified allergic sensitization (11.8 %) was related to high parental education (OR=1.2; p=0.03), parental employment (OR=0.8; p=0.02) and pets at home (OR=1.2; p=0.06). Conclusions. This study identifies that lifestyle and building factors are associated with an altered prevalence of common childhood allergic disease. Prevention may need to address the minimization of potential risk-factors KEY WORDS: asthma, environmental factors, children.