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      The New Homelessness Revisited

      1 , 2 , 3
      Annual Review of Sociology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          The new homelessness has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus.

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          Factors associated with the health care utilization of homeless persons.

          Homeless persons face numerous barriers to receiving health care and have high rates of illness and disability. Factors associated with health care utilization by homeless persons have not been explored from a national perspective. To describe factors associated with use of and perceived barriers to receipt of health care among homeless persons. Secondary data analysis of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients. A total of 2974 currently homeless persons interviewed through homeless assistance programs throughout the United States in October and November 1996. Self-reported use of ambulatory care services, emergency departments, and inpatient hospital services; inability to receive necessary care; and inability to comply with prescription medication in the prior year. Overall, 62.8% of subjects had 1 or more ambulatory care visits during the preceding year, 32.2% visited an emergency department, and 23.3% had been hospitalized. However, 24.6% reported having been unable to receive necessary medical care. Of the 1201 respondents who reported having been prescribed medication, 32.1% reported being unable to comply. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, medical illness, mental health problems, substance abuse, and other covariates, having health insurance was associated with greater use of ambulatory care (odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-5.42), inpatient hospitalization (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.16-5.81), and lower reporting of barriers to needed care (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.90) and prescription medication compliance (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.85). Insurance was not associated with emergency department visits (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.47-1.75). In this nationally representative survey, homeless persons reported high levels of barriers to needed care and used acute hospital-based care at high rates. Insurance was associated with a greater use of ambulatory care and fewer reported barriers. Provision of insurance may improve the substantial morbidity experienced by homeless persons and decrease their reliance on acute hospital-based care.
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            Housing First, Consumer Choice, and Harm Reduction for Homeless Individuals With a Dual Diagnosis

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              Understanding and Overcoming the NIMBY Syndrome

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Sociology
                Annu. Rev. Sociol.
                Annual Reviews
                0360-0572
                1545-2115
                June 2010
                June 2010
                : 36
                : 1
                : 501-521
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Sociology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802-6207; email:
                [2 ]Department of Sociology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0324; email:
                [3 ]Department of Sociology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-1360; email:
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115940
                147ca5a1-7e61-4169-b04c-558e24637147
                © 2010
                History

                Earth & Environmental sciences,Environmental change,General environmental science,Health & Social care,Public health,Infectious disease & Microbiology

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