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      A new species of Chrysosplenium (Saxifragaceae) from Shaanxi, north-western China

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          Abstract

          Chrysosplenium zhouzhiense Hong Liu, a new species from Shaanxi, north-western China, is described and photographed. The new species belongs to Subgen. Gamosplenium Sect. Nephrophylloides Ser. Macrophylla and is most similar to C. macrophyllum and C. zhangjiajieense from which it differs by having a shorter stem, rhizome absent, basal leaf absent, sterile branch arising from the flowering stem and a light yellow flower with longer stamen. A global conservation assessment is performed and classifies C. zhouzhiense as Endangered (EN).

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          Most cited references 7

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          Phylogenetic relationships and evolution in Chrysosplenium (Saxifragaceae) based on matK sequence data.

          Chrysosplenium (Saxifragaceae) consists of 57 species widely distributed in temperate and arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species restricted to the southern part of South America. Species relationships within the genus are highly problematic. The genus has traditionally been divided into two groups, sometimes recognized as sections (Oppositifolia and Alternifolia), based on leaf arrangement, or, alternatively, into 17 series. Based on morphological features, Hara suggested that the genus originated in South America and then subsequently migrated to the Northern Hemisphere. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of the chloroplast gene matK for species of Chrysosplenium to elucidate relationships, test Hara's biogeographic hypothesis for the genus, and examine chromosomal and gynoecial diversification. These analyses revealed that both sections Oppositifolia and Alternifolia are monophyletic and form two large sister clades. Hence, leaf arrangement is a good indicator of relationships within this genus. Hara's series Pilosa and Macrostemon are each also monophyletic; however, series Oppositifolia, Alternifolia, and Nepalensia are clearly not monophyletic. MacClade reconstructions suggest that the genus arose in Eastern Asia, rather than in South America, with several independent migration events from Asia to the New World. In one well-defined subclade, species from eastern and western North America form a discrete clade, with Old World species as their sister group, suggesting that the eastern and western North American taxa diverged following migration to that continent. The South American species forms a clade with species from eastern Asia; this disjunction may be the result of ancient long-distance dispersal. Character mapping demonstrated that gynoecial diversification is dynamic, with reversals from inferior to half-inferior ovaries, as well as to ovaries that appear superior. Chromosomal evolution also appears to be labile with several independent origins of n = 12 (from an original number of n = 11) and multiple episodes of aneuploidy.
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            A new species of Chrysosplenium (Saxifragaceae) from Zhangjiajie, Hunan, central China.

             H Liu,  J. Luo,  Q Liu (2016)
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              A study on the genus Chrysosplenium L. from China.

               JT Pan,  Pan (1986)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F7FCE910-8E78-573F-9C77-7788555F8AAD
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2020
                04 September 2020
                : 159
                : 127-135
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin 541006, China Guangxi Institute of Botany Guilin China
                [2 ] College of Life Sciences & Key Laboratory for Protection and Application of Special Plant Germplasm in Wuling Area of Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei Province, China South-Central University for Nationalities Wuhan China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Hong Liu ( liuhong@ 123456scuec.edu.cn )

                Academic editor: Doug Soltis

                Article
                56109
                10.3897/phytokeys.159.56109
                7486313
                Long-Fei Fu, Rui Liao, De-Qing Lan, Fang Wen, Hong Liu

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Saxifragaceae
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Asia
                China

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