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      Parents’ Perceived Impact of the Societal Lockdown of COVID-19 on Family Well-Being and on the Emotional and Behavioral State of Walloon Belgian Children Aged 4 to 13 Years: An Exploratory Study

      research-article
      1 , 1 , 1
      Psychologica Belgica
      Ubiquity Press
      COVID-19, societal lockdown, psychological impact, children

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          Abstract

          This exploratory study assessed parents’ perceptions of the emotional and behavioral impacts of the COVID-19 lockdown on their children. The total sample included 749 children, aged 4 to 13 years old (353 girls, 396 boys); 524 parents took part. The emotional and behavioral changes observed during the societal lockdown, family coexistence, the impact of COVID-19 on family well-being, and the frequency of social contacts before and during this lockdown were investigated. Results show that the most frequently reported difficulties were worry, agitation, anxiety, sadness, loneliness, nervousness, arguing, anger, frustration, boredom, irritability, behavioral problems, and laziness. Family coexistence declined significantly during this lockdown, and parents mentioned that COVID-19 had an impact on family well-being. Various ordinal logistic regressions showed that family coexistence, children’s nervousness due to COVID-19, the impact of COVID-19 on family well-being, age, and social contacts before and during this lockdown seemed to explain the various emotional and behavioral changes observed in children during the societal lockdown. These results are discussed and recommendations are made.

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          Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China

          Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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            A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations

            The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic emerged in Wuhan, China, spread nationwide and then onto half a dozen other countries between December 2019 and early 2020. The implementation of unprecedented strict quarantine measures in China has kept a large number of people in isolation and affected many aspects of people’s lives. It has also triggered a wide variety of psychological problems, such as panic disorder, anxiety and depression. This study is the first nationwide large-scale survey of psychological distress in the general population of China during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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              The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health

              The current outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus infection among humans in Wuhan (China) and its spreading around the globe is heavily impacting on the global health and mental health. Despite all resources employed to counteract the spreading of the virus, additional global strategies are needed to handle the related mental health issues. Published articles concerning mental health related to the COVID-19 outbreak and other previous global infections have been considered and reviewed. This outbreak is leading to additional health problems such as stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia, denial, anger and fear globally. Collective concerns influence daily behaviors, economy, prevention strategies and decision-making from policy makers, health organizations and medical centers, which can weaken strategies of COVID-19 control and lead to more morbidity and mental health needs at global level.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Psychol Belg
                Psychol Belg
                2054-670X
                Psychologica Belgica
                Ubiquity Press
                0033-2879
                2054-670X
                29 June 2021
                2021
                : 61
                : 1
                : 186-199
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Inter University Health and Society Research Unit (URiSS), Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: C. Stassart Inter University Health and Society Research Unit (URiSS), Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium cstassart@ 123456uliege.be
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4189-8107
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5279-6547
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9497-1128
                Article
                10.5334/pb.1059
                8252974
                34249370
                14ec035b-edc3-432b-a126-a61670a6286c
                Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 22 January 2021
                : 08 June 2021
                Categories
                Research Article

                covid-19,societal lockdown,psychological impact,children

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