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      Neuroimmunomodulation and Immune Privilege: The Role of Neuropeptides in Ocular Immunosuppression

      Neuroimmunomodulation

      S. Karger AG

      Immune privilege, Immunosuppression, T lymphocytes, Neuropeptides, Eye, CGRP, α-MSH, VIP

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          Abstract

          Regional immunoregulatory mechanisms insure that the most effective immune defense mounted is in proportion with preserving unique tissue functionalities. Immune-privileged tissues, such as the eye, are tissue sites of extreme regional immunoregulation. They have evolutionarily adapted several mechanisms to prevent the induction of inflammation within their tissue microenvironment. With over half a century of experimental examinations of ocular immune privilege, only recently have we come to understand that neuropeptides constitutively present in ocular tissues are part of the mechanisms of immune privilege.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease.

          Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional growth factor that has profound regulatory effects on many developmental and physiological processes. Disruption of the TGF-beta 1 gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells enables mice to be generated that carry the disrupted allele. Animals homozygous for the mutated TGF-beta 1 allele show no gross developmental abnormalities, but about 20 days after birth they succumb to a wasting syndrome accompanied by a multifocal, mixed inflammatory cell response and tissue necrosis, leading to organ failure and death. TGF-beta 1-deficient mice may be valuable models for human immune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft versus host reactions.
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            Fas(CD95)/FasL interactions required for programmed cell death after T-cell activation.

            Receptor crosslinking of T-cell hybridomas induces cell activation followed by apoptosis. This activation-induced cell death requires de novo synthesis of RNA and proteins, but the actual gene products that provide the death signal have not been identified. We show here that receptor crosslinking induces Fas ligand and upregulates Fas, and that the ensuing engagement of Fas by Fas ligand activates the cell-death programme. Cell death, but not activation, can be selectively prevented by a soluble Fas-immunoglobulin fusion protein. Thus, Fas and Fas ligand are the death-gene products, and their interaction accounts for the molecular mechanism of activation-induced T-cell death.
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              Autocrine T-cell suicide mediated by APO-1/(Fas/CD95)

              The APO-1/(Fas/CD95) cell surface receptor is a member of the nerve growth factor (NGF)/tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and mediates apoptosis. Peripheral activated T cells (ATC) from lymphoproliferation (lpr/lpr) mutant mice that express a reduced number of APO-1 receptors have a defect in T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced apoptosis. This suggests that TCR-induced apoptosis involves APO-1. We tested this hypothesis in various human T cells: (1) malignant Jurkat cells, (2) an alloreactive T-cell clone (S13), and (3) peripheral ATC. TCR triggering through immobilized anti-CD3 antibodies or Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) superantigen induced expression of the APO-1 ligand and apoptosis in these cells. Anti-CD3-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells was demonstrated even in single-cell cultures. In all cases apoptosis was substantially inhibited by blocking anti-APO-1 antibody fragments and soluble APO-1 receptor decoys. The APO-1 ligand was found in the supernatant of activated Jurkat cells as a soluble cytokine. We propose that TCR-induced apoptosis in ATC can occur through an APO-1 ligand-mediated autocrine suicide. These results provide a mechanism for suppression of the immune response and for peripheral tolerance by T-cell deletion.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2002
                February 2003
                19 February 2003
                : 10
                : 4
                : 189-198
                Affiliations
                Schepens Eye Research Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA
                Article
                68325 Neuroimmunomodulation 2002–03;10:189–198
                10.1159/000068325
                12584406
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 122, Pages: 10
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