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      Corneal Collagen Crosslinking: A Systematic Review

      a , a, b , *
      S. Karger AG
      Keratoectasia, Corneal collagen crosslinking, Keratoconus

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          Keratoconus (KCN) is an ectatic disorder with progressive corneal thinning and a clinical picture of corneal protrusion, progressive irregular astigmatism, corneal fibrosis and visual deterioration. Other ectatic corneal disorders include: post-LASIK ectasia (PLE) and pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD). Corneal crosslinking (CXL) is a procedure whereby riboflavin sensitization with ultraviolet A radiation induces stromal crosslinks. This alters corneal biomechanics, causing an increase in corneal stiffness. In recent years, CXL has been an established treatment for the arrest of KCN, PLE and PMD progression. CXL has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of corneal infections, chemical burns, bullous keratopathy and other forms of corneal edema. This is a current review of CXL - its biomechanical principles, the evolution of CXL protocols in the past, present and future, indications for treatment, treatment efficacy and safety.

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          Most cited references169

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          Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer.

          David Luce (2005)
          To study the results of an ocular response analyzer (ORA) to determine the biomechanical properties of the cornea and their relationship to intraocular pressure (IOP). Reichert Inc., Depew, New York, USA. The ORA (Reichert) makes 2 essentially instantaneous applanation measurements that permit determination of corneal and IOP effects. Measurements of several populations indicate that corneal hysteresis, a biomechanical measure, varied over a dynamic range of 1.8 to 14.6 mm Hg and was only weakly correlated with corneal thickness (r(2)=0.12); this is related to the observation that some subjects with relatively thick corneas have less-than-average corneal hysteresis. Corneal hysteresis changes diurnally, presumably as a result of hydration changes. Keratoconus, Fuchs' dystrophy, and post-LASIK patients demonstrated low corneal hysteresis. The corneal hysteresis biomechanical measure may prove valuable for qualification and predictions of outcomes of refractive surgery and in other cases in which corneal biomechanics are important.
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            Riboflavin/ultraviolet-a–induced collagen crosslinking for the treatment of keratoconus

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              Stress-strain measurements of human and porcine corneas after riboflavin-ultraviolet-A-induced cross-linking.

              To evaluate the biomechanical effect of combined riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA) treatment on porcine and human corneas. Department of Ophthalmology, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Corneal strips from 5 human enucleated eyes and 20 porcine cadaver corneas were treated with the photosensitizer riboflavin and irradiated with 2 double UVA diodes (370 nm, irradiance = 3 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes. After cross-linking, static stress-strain measurements of the treated and untreated corneas were performed using a microcomputer-controlled biomaterial tester with a prestress of 5 x 10(3) Pa. There was a significant increase in corneal rigidity after cross-linking, indicated by a rise in stress in treated porcine corneas (by 71.9%) and human corneas (by 328.9%) and in Young's modulus by the factor 1.8 in porcine corneas and 4.5 in human corneas. The mean central corneal thickness was 850 microm +/- 70 (SD) in porcine corneas and 550 +/- 40 microm in human corneas. Riboflavin-UVA-induced collagen cross-linking led to an increase in mechanical rigidity in porcine corneas and an even greater increase in human corneas. As collagen cross-linking is maximal in the anterior 300 microm of the cornea, the greater stiffening effect in human corneas can be explained by the relatively larger portion of the cornea being cross-linked in the overall thinner human cornea.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 2014
                17 April 2014
                : 232
                : 1
                : 10-27
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, and bSackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
                Author notes
                *David Varssano, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizmann Street, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel), E-Mail varssano@gmail.com
                357979 Ophthalmologica 2014;232:10-27
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                : 06 December 2013
                : 10 December 2013
                Page count
                Tables: 1, Pages: 18

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Keratoconus,Corneal collagen crosslinking,Keratoectasia


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