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      Bilateral and Simultaneous Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To describe a case of bilateral and simultaneous central retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in a young patient diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Case Report: A 38-year-old man with morbid obesity and daytime sleepiness presented with a history of bilateral vision loss. His visual acuity (VA) was hand movements, and fundus examination (FE) revealed bilateral central RVO. General medical examination revealed untreated hypertension and type II respiratory failure. Laboratory tests for thrombophilia showed increased hematocrit (59%) and high levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein. Other causes of congenital and acquired hypercoagulability were ruled out. Pathologic polysomnography led to the diagnosis of OSAS. The patient was treated with antihypertensive drugs and continuous positive air pressure. In addition, he received intravitreal ranibizumab. At 10 months after presentation, his VA was no light perception in the right eye and hand movements in the left eye. FE revealed bilateral retinal and optic nerve atrophy, and the occurrence of a nonarteritic anterior ischemic neuropathy in the right eye was considered.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Association of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a large community-based study. Sleep Heart Health Study.

          Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep apnea have been linked to hypertension in previous studies, but most of these studies used surrogate information to define SDB (eg, snoring) and were based on small clinic populations, or both. To assess the association between SDB and hypertension in a large cohort of middle-aged and older persons. Cross-sectional analyses of participants in the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based multicenter study conducted between November 1995 and January 1998. A total of 6132 subjects recruited from ongoing population-based studies (aged > or = 40 years; 52.8% female). Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, the average number of apneas plus hypopneas per hour of sleep, with apnea defined as a cessation of airflow and hypopnea defined as a > or = 30% reduction in airflow or thoracoabdominal excursion both of which are accompanied by a > or = 4% drop in oxyhemoglobin saturation) [corrected], obtained by unattended home polysomnography. Other measures include arousal index; percentage of sleep time below 90% oxygen saturation; history of snoring; and presence of hypertension, defined as resting blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension increased significantly with increasing SDB measures, although some of this association was explained by body mass index (BMI). After adjusting for demographics and anthropometric variables (including BMI, neck circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio), as well as for alcohol intake and smoking, the odds ratio for hypertension, comparing the highest category of AHI (> or = 30 per hour) with the lowest category ( or = 12% vs < 0.05%) was 1.46 (95% CI, 1.12-1.88; P for trend <.001). In stratified analyses, associations of hypertension with either measure of SDB were seen in both sexes, older and younger ages, all ethnic groups, and among normal-weight and overweight individuals. Weaker and nonsignificant associations were observed for the arousal index or self-reported history of habitual snoring. Our findings from the largest cross-sectional study to date indicate that SDB is associated with systemic hypertension in middle-aged and older individuals of different sexes and ethnic backgrounds.
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            Association of Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Sleep Apnea, and Hypertension in a Large Community-Based Study

             F Nieto (2000)
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              Circulating cardiovascular risk factors in obstructive sleep apnoea: data from randomised controlled trials.

              Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Novel circulating cardiovascular risk markers enabling a more accurate prediction of cardiovascular risk have been identified. Examination of these markers may clarify the increased risk in OSA and contribute to an analysis of the benefits of treatment. Plasma levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride and activated coagulation factors XIIa and VIIa, factors VII, VIII, XII, fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), von Willebrand factor antigen (vWFAg), soluble P-selectin (sP-sel), and homocysteine were measured before and after treatment for 1 month with therapeutic or subtherapeutic (control) continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) in 220 patients with OSA. Levels of activated coagulation factors XIIa, VIIa, TAT and sP-sel were higher in OSA patients at baseline than in unmatched controls, but did not fall with 1 month of therapeutic CPAP treatment. The raised sP-sel levels correlated only with body mass index (p = 0.002). There was a trend towards a significant fall in total cholesterol with therapeutic CPAP (p = 0.06) compared with the control group. In the therapeutic group there was a clinically significant mean fall in total cholesterol of 0.28 mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.45, p = 0.001) which may reduce cardiovascular risk by about 15%. A number of activated coagulation factors are increased in untreated OSA patients, potentially contributing to vascular risk, but they do not fall with 1 month of CPAP treatment. Nasal CPAP may produce a clinically relevant fall in total cholesterol level, potentially reducing cardiovascular risk, but this needs to be verified in a larger prospective study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2014
                May – August 2014
                21 May 2014
                : 5
                : 2
                : 150-156
                Affiliations
                Departments of aOphthalmology and bHematology, Ourense University Hospital,Ourense, Spain
                Author notes
                *Andrea Govetto, MD, Rua Ramon Puga No. 55-56, ES-32005 Ourense (Spain), E-Mail a.govetto@gmail.com
                Article
                363132 PMC4067715 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2014;5:150-156
                10.1159/000363132
                PMC4067715
                24987364
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Published: May 2014

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