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      Ypsilothuria bitentaculata bitentaculata (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the southwestern Atlantic, with comments on its morphology

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Ypsilothuria bitentaculata bitentaculata (Ludwig, 1893), previously known from several localities in the Pacific Ocean, is recorded herein for the first time from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean based on eight specimens caught off the coast of southeastern Brazil, between 505-511 m deep. Several morphological details are added to the description of Y. b. bitentaculata, including photographs of specimens and calcareous ring plates, as well as scanning electron microscope images of the ossicles from the body wall, oral and anal siphons and introvert. Additionally, Y. b. bitentaculata is compared to its congeners.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Molecular phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea (Echinodermata).

          Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are a morphologically diverse, ecologically important, and economically valued clade of echinoderms; however, the understanding of the overall systematics of the group remains controversial. Here, we present a phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea assessed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches using approximately 4.3kb of mt- (COI, 16S, 12S) and nDNA (H3, 18S, 28S) sequences from 82 holothuroid terminals representing 23 of the 27 widely-accepted family-ranked taxa. Currently five holothuroid taxa of ordinal rank are accepted. We find that three of the five orders are non-monophyletic, and we revise the taxonomy of the groups accordingly. Apodida is sister to the rest of Holothuroidea, here considered Actinopoda. Within Actinopoda, Elasipodida in part is sister to the remaining Actinopoda. This latter clade, comprising holothuroids with respiratory trees, is now called Pneumonophora. The traditional Aspidochirotida is paraphyletic, with representatives from three orders (Molpadida, Dendrochirotida, and Elasipodida in part) nested within. Therefore, we discontinue the use of Aspidochirotida and instead erect Holothuriida as the sister group to the remaining Pneumonophora, here termed Neoholothuriida. We found four well-supported major clades in Neoholothuriida: Dendrochirotida, Molpadida and two new clades, Synallactida and Persiculida. The mapping of traditionally-used morphological characters in holothuroid systematics onto the phylogeny revealed marked homoplasy in most characters demonstrating that further taxonomic revision of Holothuroidea is required. Two time-tree analyses, one based on calibrations for uncontroversial crown group dates for Eleutherozoa, Echinozoa and Holothuroidea and another using these calibrations plus four more from within Holothuroidea, showed major discrepancies, suggesting that fossils of Holothuroidea may need reassessment in terms of placing these forms with existing crown clades.
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            The holothurians of the Western part of the Atlantic Ocean

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              Abundant Brachiopods on a Tropical, Upwelling-Influenced Shelf (Southeast Brazilian Bight, South Atlantic)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                zool
                Zoologia (Curitiba)
                Zoologia (Curitiba)
                Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia (Curitiba, PR, Brazil )
                1984-4670
                1984-4689
                2018
                : 35
                Affiliations
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Museu de Zoologia Brazil
                Article
                S1984-46702018000100312 S1984-4670(18)03500000312
                10.3897/zoologia.35.e24573

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 0
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