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      Mass determinations of the three mini-Neptunes transiting TOI-125

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 8 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 3 , 4 , 14 , 1 , 15 , 1 , 16 , 11 , 12 , 1 , 17 , 5 , 5 , 18 , 18 , 19 , 18 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 1 , 1 , 24 , 8 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 25 , 1 , 26 , 3 , 4 , 3 , 4 , 18 , 27 , 3 , 4 , 8 , 28 , 29 , 20 , 6 , 1 , 30 , 31 , 11 , 12 , 32 , 7 , 18 , 14 , 6 , 23 , 8 , 9 , 32 , 33 , 24 , 25 , 34 , 11 , 12 , 25 , 11 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 25 , 38 , 11 , 12 , 5 , 7 , 19 , 33 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 25 , 1 , 1 , 8 , 23 , 1 , 1 , 42 , 43 , 5 , 3 , 4 , 3 , 4

      Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          ABSTRACT

          The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, TESS, is currently carrying out an all-sky search for small planets transiting bright stars. In the first year of the TESS survey, a steady progress was made in achieving the mission’s primary science goal of establishing bulk densities for 50 planets smaller than Neptune. During that year, the TESS’s observations were focused on the southern ecliptic hemisphere, resulting in the discovery of three mini-Neptunes orbiting the star TOI-125, a V = 11.0 K0 dwarf. We present intensive HARPS radial velocity observations, yielding precise mass measurements for TOI-125b, TOI-125c, and TOI-125d. TOI-125b has an orbital period of 4.65 d, a radius of 2.726 ± 0.075 RE, a mass of 9.50 ± 0.88 ME, and is near the 2:1 mean motion resonance with TOI-125c at 9.15 d. TOI-125c has a similar radius of 2.759 ± 0.10 RE and a mass of 6.63 ± 0.99 ME, being the puffiest of the three planets. TOI-125d has an orbital period of 19.98 d and a radius of 2.93 ± 0.17 RE and mass 13.6 ± 1.2 ME. For TOI-125b and d, we find unusual high eccentricities of 0.19 ± 0.04 and $0.17^{+0.08}_{-0.06}$, respectively. Our analysis also provides upper mass limits for the two low-SNR planet candidates in the system; for TOI-125.04 (RP = 1.36 RE, P = 0.53 d), we find a 2σ upper mass limit of 1.6 ME, whereas TOI-125.05 ($R_P=4.2^{+2.4}_{-1.4}$ RE, P = 13.28 d) is unlikely a viable planet candidate with an upper mass limit of 2.7 ME. We discuss the internal structure of the three confirmed planets, as well as dynamical stability and system architecture for this intriguing exoplanet system.

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          Inference from Iterative Simulation Using Multiple Sequences

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            An Equation of State for Low-Mass Stars and Giant Planets

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              Gaia Data Release 2

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0035-8711
                1365-2966
                March 2020
                March 11 2020
                March 2020
                March 11 2020
                January 23 2020
                : 492
                : 4
                : 5399-5412
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland
                [2 ]Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, Italy
                [3 ]Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
                [4 ]Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
                [5 ]Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
                [6 ]Leiden Observatory, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands
                [7 ]Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala, SE-439 92, Sweden
                [8 ]Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, P-4150-762 Porto, Portugal
                [9 ]Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, P-4169-007 Porto, Portugal
                [10 ]Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
                [11 ]Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
                [12 ]Dpto. Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, Calle Padre Herrera, s/n, E-38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
                [13 ]Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
                [14 ]Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg, Germany
                [15 ]Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
                [16 ]Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
                [17 ]European Southern Observatory (ESO), Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile, Chile
                [18 ]Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
                [19 ]Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
                [20 ]Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
                [21 ]Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
                [22 ]Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
                [23 ]NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
                [24 ]Depto. de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, E-28692 Villanueva de la Cañad, Madrid, Spain
                [25 ]Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, 13013 Marseille, France
                [26 ]Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
                [27 ]McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, TX 78712-1206 Austin, TX, USA
                [28 ]Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Int. Cantilo, C1428EGA Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [29 ]CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), C1428EGA Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [30 ]IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, P557+GJ Gif-sur-Yvette, France
                [31 ]AIM, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
                [32 ]Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung an der Universität zu Köln, Aachener Strasse 209, D-50931 Köln Germany
                [33 ]Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10585 Berlin, Germany
                [34 ]Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ky, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
                [35 ]Astrobiology Center, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
                [36 ]JST, PRESTO, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
                [37 ]National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
                [38 ]Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland
                [39 ]Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
                [40 ]Institute of Geological Sciences, FU Berlin, Malteserstr, 74-100, D-12249 Berlin, Germany
                [41 ]Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, USA
                [42 ]Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78705, USA
                [43 ]Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
                Article
                10.1093/mnras/staa197
                187b4816-7039-4f41-9a23-baec39940301
                © 2020

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