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      Diabetes Fact Sheets in Korea, 2018: An Appraisal of Current Status

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          Abstract

          Background

          The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged 30 years and older.

          Methods

          This study used 2013 to 2016 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally-representative survey of the Korean population. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, current use of antidiabetic medication, a previous history of diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%.

          Results

          In 2016, 14.4% (approximately 5.02 million) of Korean adults had diabetes. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 25.3% (8.71 million). From 2013 to 2016, the awareness, control, and treatment rates for diabetes were 62.6%, 56.7%, and 25.1%, respectively. People with diabetes had the following comorbidities: obesity (50.4%), abdominal obesity (47.8%), hypertension (55.3%), and hypercholesterolemia (34.9%). The 25.1%, 68.4%, and 44.2% of people with diabetes achieved HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure <140/85 mm Hg, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL. Only 8.4% of people with diabetes had good control of all three targets.

          Conclusion

          This study confirms that diabetes is as an important public health problem. Efforts should be made to increase awareness, detection, and comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001.

          Obesity and diabetes are increasing in the United States. To estimate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among US adults in 2001. Random-digit telephone survey of 195 005 adults aged 18 years or older residing in all states participating in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2001. Body mass index, based on self-reported weight and height and self-reported diabetes. In 2001 the prevalence of obesity (BMI > or =30) was 20.9% vs 19.8% in 2000, an increase of 5.6%. The prevalence of diabetes increased to 7.9% vs 7.3% in 2000, an increase of 8.2%. The prevalence of BMI of 40 or higher in 2001 was 2.3%. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, asthma, arthritis, and poor health status. Compared with adults with normal weight, adults with a BMI of 40 or higher had an odds ratio (OR) of 7.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.39-8.50) for diagnosed diabetes, 6.38 (95% CI, 5.67-7.17) for high blood pressure, 1.88 (95% CI,1.67-2.13) for high cholesterol levels, 2.72 (95% CI, 2.38-3.12) for asthma, 4.41 (95% CI, 3.91-4.97) for arthritis, and 4.19 (95% CI, 3.68-4.76) for fair or poor health. Increases in obesity and diabetes among US adults continue in both sexes, all ages, all races, all educational levels, and all smoking levels. Obesity is strongly associated with several major health risk factors.
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            Mortality and causes of death in the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes.

            We aimed to examine the mortality rates, excess mortality and causes of death in diabetic patients from ten centres throughout the world. A mortality follow-up of 4713 WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes (WHO MSVDD) participants from ten centres was carried out, causes of death were ascertained and age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated by centre, sex and type of diabetes. Excess mortality, compared with the background population, was assessed in terms of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for each of the 10 cohorts. Cardiovascular disease was the most common underlying cause of death, accounting for 44 % of deaths in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and 52 % of deaths in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Renal disease accounted for 21% of deaths in Type I diabetes and 11% in Type II diabetes. For Type I diabetes, all-cause mortality rates were highest in Berlin men and Warsaw women, and lowest in London men and Zagreb women. For Type II diabetes, rates were highest in Warsaw men and Oklahoma women and lowest in Tokyo men and women. Age adjusted mortality rates and SMRs were generally higher in patients with Type I diabetes compared with those with Type II diabetes. Men and women in the Tokyo cohort had a very low excess mortality when compared with the background population. This study confirms the importance of cardiovascular disease as the major cause of death in people with both types of diabetes. The low excess mortality in the Japanese cohort could have implications for the possible reduction of the burden of mortality associated with diabetes in other parts of the world.
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              Cut-off point of BMI and obesity-related comorbidities and mortality in middle-aged Koreans.

              The need for a lower BMI to classify overweight in Asian populations has been controversial. Using both disease and mortality outcomes, we investigated whether lower BMI cut-off points are appropriate for identifying increased health risk in Koreans. We conducted a cohort study among 773,915 men and women from 30 to 59 years old with 8- to 10-year follow-up periods. Primary outcomes were change of obesity prevalence, obesity-related disease incidence, and all-cause mortality. Prevalence of overweight (BMI of 25.0-29.9) has steadily increased (1.3% annually), whereas obesity (BMI > or = 30) showed a lower prevalence and only a slight increase (0.1%-0.2% annually). Our study revealed that dose-response relationships exist between obesity and related disease incidences (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia) beginning at lower BMI levels than previously reported. Compared with those in the healthy weight range, Koreans with a BMI > or = 25 were not at greater risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia than has been reported for whites in similar studies. Obesity-related all-cause mortality also did not seem so different from that of whites. Our findings did not support the use of a lower BMI cut-off point for defining overweight in Koreans compared with whites for the purpose of identifying different risks. However, populations with BMI > or = 25 are rapidly increasing and have substantial risks of diseases. To preempt the rapid increases in obesity and related health problems that are occurring in Western countries, Korea should consider using a BMI of 25 as an action point for obesity prevention and control interventions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Metab J
                Diabetes Metab J
                DMJ
                Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
                Korean Diabetes Association
                2233-6079
                2233-6087
                August 2019
                17 July 2019
                : 43
                : 4
                : 487-494
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Korea.
                [2 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [3 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
                [4 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
                [5 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [6 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.
                [7 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
                [8 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Dae Jung Kim. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164 World cup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16499, Korea. djkim@ 123456ajou.ac.kr
                Article
                10.4093/dmj.2019.0067
                6712228
                31339012
                Copyright © 2019 Korean Diabetes Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: The Korean Diabetes Association;
                Categories
                Original Article
                Epidemiology

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