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      The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids) in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

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          Abstract

          Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105), with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet); T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast); T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate); T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB); T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB);T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(r)Red);T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(r)Yellow); T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r)); and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r)). Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases) and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota) vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05).

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          Carotenoid modulation of immune function and sexual attractiveness in zebra finches.

          One hypothesis for why females in many animal species frequently prefer to mate with the most elaborately ornamented males predicts that availability of carotenoid pigments is a potentially limiting factor for both ornament expression and immune function. An implicit assumption of this hypothesis is that males that can afford to produce more elaborate carotenoid-dependent displays must be healthier individuals with superior immunocompetence. However, whether variation in circulating carotenoid levels causes variation in both immune function and sexual attractiveness has not been determined in any species. In this study, we show that manipulation of dietary carotenoid supply invokes parallel changes in cell-mediated immune function and sexual attractiveness in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).
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            Carotenoids, immunocompetence, and the information content of sexual colors: an experimental test.

            Many male birds use carotenoid pigments to acquire brilliant colors that advertise their health and condition to prospective mates. The direct means by which the most colorful males achieve superior health has been debated, however. One hypothesis, based on studies of carotenoids as antioxidants in humans and other animals, is that carotenoids directly boost the immune system of colorful birds. We studied the relationship between carotenoid pigments, immune function, and sexual coloration in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which males incorporate carotenoid pigments into their beak to attract mates. We tested the hypotheses that increased dietary carotenoid intake enhances immunocompetence in male zebra finches and that levels of carotenoids circulating in blood, which also determine beak coloration, directly predict the immune response of individuals. We experimentally supplemented captive finches with two common dietary carotenoid pigments (lutein and zeaxanthin) and measured cell-mediated and humoral immunity a month later. Supplemented males showed elevated blood-carotenoid levels, brighter beak coloration, and increased cell-mediated and humoral immune responses than did controls. Cell-mediated responses were predicted directly by changes in beak color and plasma carotenoid concentration of individual birds. These experimental findings suggest that carotenoid-based color signals in birds may directly signal male health via the immunostimulatory action of ingested and circulated carotenoid pigments.
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              An experimental test of the dose-dependent effect of carotenoids and immune activation on sexual signals and antioxidant activity.

              Carotenoid-based sexual traits are thought to be reliable indicators of male quality because they might be scarce and therefore might indicate the ability of males to gather high-quality food and because they are involved in important physiological functions (as immune enhancers and antioxidants). We performed an experiment where male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were provided with increasing carotenoid doses in the drinking water during 4 weeks (bill color of this species is a carotenoid-based sexual signal). Simultaneously, birds were split into two groups: one receiving weekly injections of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in order to activate the immune system, the other being injected with the same volume of phosphate buffered saline. We assessed how carotenoid availability and immune activation affected the amount of circulating plasma carotenoids, the beak color, and the antioxidant defenses (assessed as the resistance of red blood cells to a controlled free radical attack). Carotenoid availability affected the amount of circulating carotenoids and beak color; both variables reached a plateau at the highest carotenoid doses. Immune activation diverted carotenoids from plasma, and this in turn affected the expression of the sexual trait. Finally, we found a positive correlation between the change in circulating carotenoids and antioxidant defenses. These results support the idea that carotenoids have important physiological properties that ensure the honesty of carotenoid-based sexual traits.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbca
                Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola
                Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic.
                Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
                1806-9061
                March 2016
                : 18
                : 1
                : 101-116
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Yüzüncü Yil University Turkey
                [2 ] Yüzüncü Yil University Turkey
                [3 ] Kars Directorate of Provincial Food Agriculture and Livestock Turkey
                Article
                S1516-635X2016000100101
                10.1590/18069061-2015-0155

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
                ORNITHOLOGY

                Animal agriculture, Ornithology

                pigmentation, immune response, performance, carotenoids, antioxidants, Broiler

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