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      Traditional Chinese medicine as a cancer treatment: Modern perspectives of ancient but advanced science

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          Abstract

          Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years and at the present time is widely accepted as an alternative treatment for cancer. In this review, we sought to summarize the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive and therapeutic activity of TCM, especially that of the Chinese herbal medicine‐derived phytochemicals curcumin, resveratrol, and berberine. Numerous genes have been reported to be involved when using TCM treatments and so we have selectively highlighted the role of a number of oncogene and tumor suppressor genes in TCM therapy. In addition, the impact of TCM treatment on DNA methylation, histone modification, and the regulation of noncoding RNAs is discussed. Furthermore, we have highlighted studies of TCM therapy that modulate the tumor microenvironment and eliminate cancer stem cells. The information compiled in this review will serve as a solid foundation to formulate hypotheses for future studies on TCM‐based cancer therapy.

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          Most cited references190

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          Epigenetics in cancer.

          Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape are a hallmark of cancer. The initiation and progression of cancer, traditionally seen as a genetic disease, is now realized to involve epigenetic abnormalities along with genetic alterations. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs, specifically microRNA expression. The reversible nature of epigenetic aberrations has led to the emergence of the promising field of epigenetic therapy, which is already making progress with the recent FDA approval of three epigenetic drugs for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of alterations in the epigenetic landscape that occur in cancer compared with normal cells, the roles of these changes in cancer initiation and progression, including the cancer stem cell model, and the potential use of this knowledge in designing more effective treatment strategies.
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            Cancer immunotherapy: harnessing the immune system to battle cancer.

            The recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies represent a turning point in cancer immunotherapy. These successes also underscore the importance of understanding basic tumor immunology for successful clinical translation in treating patients with cancer. The Reviews in this Review Series focus on current developments in cancer immunotherapy, highlight recent advances in our understanding of basic aspects of tumor immunology, and suggest how these insights can lead to the development of new immunotherapeutic strategies.
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              Resveratrol Inhibits Invasion and Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer Cells via MALAT1 Mediated Wnt/β-Catenin Signal Pathway

              Resveratrol, extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Polygonum cuspidatum, is known to inhibit invasion and metastasis of human colorectal cancer (CRC), in which long non-coding Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (RNA-MALAT1) also plays an important role. Using MALAT1 lentiviral shRNA and over-expression constructs in CRC derived cell lines, LoVo and HCT116, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on CRC are through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thus the expression of its target genes such as c-Myc, MMP-7, as well as the expression of MALAT1. In detail, resveratrol down-regulates MALAT1, resulting in decreased nuclear localization of β-catenin thus attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which leads to the inhibition of CRC invasion and metastasis. This finding of ours surely provides important pre-clinical evidence supporting future use of resveratrol in prevention and treatment of CRC.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                huangyongye88@163.com
                Journal
                Cancer Med
                Cancer Med
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7634
                CAM4
                Cancer Medicine
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7634
                03 April 2019
                May 2019
                : 8
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1002/cam4.2019.8.issue-5 )
                : 1958-1975
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] College of Life and Health Sciences Northeastern University Shenyang China
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Yongye Huang, College of Life and Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China

                Email: huangyongye88@ 123456163.com

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9083-250X
                Article
                CAM42108
                10.1002/cam4.2108
                6536969
                30945475
                1a37311c-c305-41f2-bd2b-d060c3428218
                © 2019 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 02 December 2018
                : 26 February 2019
                : 07 March 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 18, Words: 13756
                Funding
                Funded by: National Training Program of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates
                Award ID: 201810145207
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81502582
                Award ID: U1603125
                Funded by: Program for JLU Science and Technology Innovative Research Team
                Award ID: 2017TD-28
                Categories
                Review
                Clinical Cancer Research
                Reviews
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                cam42108
                May 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.6.3 mode:remove_FC converted:28.05.2019

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                cancer stem cells,epigenetics,microenvironment,oncogene,traditional chinese medicine

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