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      Targets to increase food production: One Health implications

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          Abstract

          The increasing world population means that there is a requirement to expand global food production. Looking at the Republic of Ireland as an example, the risks and opportunities associated with the expansion of food production are outlined, particularly in relation to zoonoses transmission. A One Health approach to sustainable food production is required to avert a potential public health problem associated with increased agricultural expansion.

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          Most cited references 8

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          A meta‐analysis suggesting that the relationship between biodiversity and risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission is idiosyncratic

          Abstract Zoonotic pathogens are significant burdens on global public health. Because they are transmitted to humans from non‐human animals, the transmission dynamics of zoonoses are necessarily influenced by the ecology of their animal hosts and vectors. The ‘dilution effect’ proposes that increased species diversity reduces disease risk, suggesting that conservation and public health initiatives can work synergistically to improve human health and wildlife biodiversity. However, the meta‐analysis that we present here indicates a weak and highly heterogeneous relationship between host biodiversity and disease. Our results suggest that disease risk is more likely a local phenomenon that relies on the specific composition of reservoir hosts and vectors, and their ecology, rather than patterns of species biodiversity.
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            Current drivers and future directions of global livestock disease dynamics.

            We review the global dynamics of livestock disease over the last two decades. Our imperfect ability to detect and report disease hinders assessment of trends, but we suggest that, although endemic diseases continue their historic decline in wealthy countries, poor countries experience static or deteriorating animal health and epidemic diseases show both regression and expansion. At a mesolevel, disease is changing in terms of space and host, which is illustrated by bluetongue, Lyme disease, and West Nile virus, and it is also emerging, as illustrated by highly pathogenic avian influenza and others. Major proximate drivers of change in disease dynamics include ecosystem change, ecosystem incursion, and movements of people and animals; underlying these are demographic change and an increasing demand for livestock products. We identify three trajectories of global disease dynamics: (i) the worried well in developed countries (demanding less risk while broadening the circle of moral concern), (ii) the intensifying and market-orientated systems of many developing countries, where highly complex disease patterns create hot spots for disease shifts, and (iii) the neglected cold spots in poor countries, where rapid change in disease dynamics is less likely but smallholders and pastoralists continue to struggle with largely preventable and curable livestock diseases.
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              Applying the ecosystem services framework to pasture-based livestock farming systems in Europe

              The concept of ‘Ecosystem Services’ (ES) focuses on the linkages between ecosystems, including agroecosystems, and human well-being, referring to all the benefits, direct and indirect, that people obtain from ecosystems. In this paper, we review the application of the ES framework to pasture-based livestock farming systems, which allows (1) regulating, supporting and cultural ES to be integrated at the same level with provisioning ES, and (2) the multiple trade-offs and synergies that exist among ES to be considered. Research on livestock farming has focused mostly on provisioning ES (meat, milk and fibre production), despite the fact that provisioning ES strongly depends on regulating and supporting ES for their existence. We first present an inventory of the non-provisioning ES (regulating, supporting and cultural) provided by pasture-based livestock systems in Europe. Next, we review the trade-offs between provisioning and non-provisioning ES at multiple scales and present an overview of the methodologies for assessing biophysical trade-offs. Third, we present non-biophysical (economical and socio-cultural) methodologies and applications for ES valuation. We conclude with some recommendations for policy design.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Infect Ecol Epidemiol
                Infect Ecol Epidemiol
                IEE
                Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
                Co-Action Publishing
                2000-8686
                24 April 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]UCD School of Agriculture & Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
                [2 ]UCD Centre for Food Safety, UCD School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Barry J. McMahon, UCD School of Agriculture & Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland, Email: barry.mcmahon@ 123456ucd.ie

                Responsible Editor: Lovisa Svensson, Örebro University, Sweden.

                Article
                27708
                10.3402/iee.v5.27708
                4410110
                25912031
                © 2015 Barry J. McMahon et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Letter to the Editor

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                one health, zoonoses, ecosystem services, food production

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