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      Whole-Genome Comparison of Representatives of All Variants of SARS-CoV-2, Including Subvariant BA.2 and the GKA Clade


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          Since its discovery at the end of 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly evolved into many variants, including the subvariant BA.2 and the GKA clade. Genomic clarification is needed for better management of the current pandemic as well as the possible reemergence of novel variants. The sequence of the reference genome Wuhan-Hu-1 and approximately 20 representatives of each variant were downloaded from GenBank and GISAID. Two representatives with no track of in-definitive nucleotides were selected. The sequences were aligned using muscle. The location of insertion/deletion (indel) in the genome was mapped following the open reading frame (ORF) of Wuhan-Hu-1. The phylogeny of the spike protein coding region was constructed using the maximum likelihood method. Amino acid substitutions in all ORFs were analyzed separately. There are two indel sites in ORF1AB, eight in spike, and one each in ORF3A, matrix (MA), nucleoprotein (NP), and the 3′-untranslated regions (3′UTR). Some indel sites and residues/substitutions are not unique, and some are variant-specific. The phylogeny shows that Omicron, Deltacron, and BA2 are clustered together and separated from other variants with 100% bootstrap support. In conclusion, whole-genome comparison of representatives of all variants revealed indel patterns that are specific to SARS-CoV-2 variants or subvariants. Polymorphic amino acid comparison across all coding regions also showed amino acid residues shared by specific groups of variants. Finally, the higher transmissibility of BA.2 might be due at least in part to the 48 nucleotide deletions in the 3′UTR, while the seem-to-be extinction of GKA clade is due to the lack of genetic advantages as a consequence of amino acid substitutions in various genes.

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China

            Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health 1–3 . Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing 4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China 5 . This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans.
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              Virology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Control of COVID-19

              The outbreak of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) in China has been brought to global attention and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Scientific advancements since the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002~2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012 have accelerated our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of therapeutics to treat viral infection. As no specific therapeutics and vaccines are available for disease control, the epidemic of COVID-19 is posing a great threat for global public health. To provide a comprehensive summary to public health authorities and potential readers worldwide, we detail the present understanding of COVID-19 and introduce the current state of development of measures in this review.

                Author and article information

                Adv Virol
                Adv Virol
                Advances in Virology
                9 March 2023
                : 2023
                : 6476626
                1Virology Laboratory, The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
                2The Animal Biomedical and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Udayana University, Jl. Sesetan-Markisa 6A, Denpasar 80223, Bali, Indonesia
                3The Biology Study Program, The Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Badung, Bali, Indonesia
                4Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory, The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
                5The Department of Obstetrics and Genecology, The Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Kuta Selatan, Bali, Indonesia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Majid Jabir

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Ida B. K. Suardana et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 5 May 2022
                : 10 December 2022
                : 17 February 2023
                Funded by: Kementerian Riset Teknologi Dan Pendidikan Tinggi Republik Indonesia
                Research Article

                Microbiology & Virology
                Microbiology & Virology


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