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      Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life and mental health in children and adolescents in Germany

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          Abstract

          The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented changes in the lives of 1.6 billion children and adolescents. First non-representative studies from China, India, Brazil, the US, Spain, Italy, and Germany pointed to a negative mental health impact. The current study is the first nationwide representative study to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany from the perspective of children themselves. A representative online survey was conducted among n = 1586 families with 7- to 17-year-old children and adolescents between May 26 and June 10. The survey included internationally established and validated instruments for measuring HRQoL (KIDSCREEN-10), mental health problems (SDQ), anxiety (SCARED), and depression (CES-DC). Results were compared with data from the nationwide, longitudinal, representative BELLA cohort study ( n = 1556) conducted in Germany before the pandemic. Two-thirds of the children and adolescents reported being highly burdened by the COVID-19 pandemic. They experienced significantly lower HRQoL (40.2% vs. 15.3%), more mental health problems (17.8% vs. 9.9%) and higher anxiety levels (24.1% vs. 14.9%) than before the pandemic. Children with low socioeconomic status, migration background and limited living space were affected significantly more. Health promotion and prevention strategies need to be implemented to maintain children’s and adolescents’ mental health, improve their HRQoL, and mitigate the burden caused by COVID-19, particularly for children who are most at risk.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00787-021-01726-5.

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          The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note

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            Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents.

            The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of heterogeneity of estimates.
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              Challenges and burden of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for child and adolescent mental health: a narrative review to highlight clinical and research needs in the acute phase and the long return to normality

              Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is profoundly affecting life around the globe. Isolation, contact restrictions and economic shutdown impose a complete change to the psychosocial environment in affected countries. These measures have the potential to threaten the mental health of children and adolescents significantly. Even though the current crisis can bring with it opportunities for personal growth and family cohesion, disadvantages may outweigh these benefits. Anxiety, lack of peer contact and reduced opportunities for stress regulation are main concerns. Another main threat is an increased risk for parental mental illness, domestic violence and child maltreatment. Especially for children and adolescents with special needs or disadvantages, such as disabilities, trauma experiences, already existing mental health problems, migrant background and low socioeconomic status, this may be a particularly challenging time. To maintain regular and emergency child and adolescent psychiatric treatment during the pandemic is a major challenge but is necessary for limiting long-term consequences for the mental health of children and adolescents. Urgent research questions comprise understanding the mental health effects of social distancing and economic pressure, identifying risk and resilience factors, and preventing long-term consequences, including—but not restricted to—child maltreatment. The efficacy of telepsychiatry is another highly relevant issue is to evaluate the efficacy of telehealth and perfect its applications to child and adolescent psychiatry. Conclusion There are numerous mental health threats associated with the current pandemic and subsequent restrictions. Child and adolescent psychiatrists must ensure continuity of care during all phases of the pandemic. COVID-19-associated mental health risks will disproportionately hit children and adolescents who are already disadvantaged and marginalized. Research is needed to assess the implications of policies enacted to contain the pandemic on mental health of children and adolescents, and to estimate the risk/benefit ratio of measures such as home schooling, in order to be better prepared for future developments.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ravens-sieberer@uke.de
                Journal
                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                1018-8827
                1435-165X
                25 January 2021
                25 January 2021
                : 1-11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.13648.38, ISNI 0000 0001 2180 3484, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, , University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, ; Hamburg, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.448744.f, ISNI 0000 0001 0144 8833, Alice Salomon University of Applied Science, ; Berlin, Germany
                [3 ]Apollon University of Applied Science of Healthcare Economy, Bremen, Germany
                [4 ]Argora Clinic, Psychosomatic Clinic and Outpatient Center, Berlin, Germany
                [5 ]GRID grid.13652.33, ISNI 0000 0001 0940 3744, Department of Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, , Robert Koch Institute, ; Berlin, Germany
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2031-095X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7498-6229
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3340-0452
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4197-8606
                Article
                1726
                10.1007/s00787-021-01726-5
                7829493
                33492480
                1bcb04ac-595a-4ec7-9a83-9e5a8dffcb65
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 29 October 2020
                : 16 January 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Projekt DEAL
                Categories
                Original Contribution

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                covid-19,mental health,quality of life,anxiety,depression,children and adolescents

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