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      The polymorphism of Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is related to osteoporosis and bone mineral density in postmenopausal population


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          Objective: It has been shown that Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may be related with bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis. But there are few evidences on the role of genetic variation of IGF-1 on the BMD or osteoporosis. We observed the relationship between polymorphisms of IGF-1(rs35767, rs2288377 and rs5742612) with osteoporosis and BMD in the postmenopausal female population in our study.

          Methods: A total of 216 postmenopausal women with a primary diagnosis of osteoporosis and 220 normal healthy women were included in the study. Genomic DNA of IGF-1 rs35767, rs2288377 and rs5742612 was extracted from the whole blood using QIAamp blood DNA mini kits (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) according to the methods recommended by the manufacturer.

          Results: We found that T allele of rs35767 had higher increased risk of osteoporosis (OR=1.34, 95%CI=1.0-1.81). Those carrying T allele of rs35767 had a significant lower BMD at L1–L4 vertebrae, femoral neck, total hip and trochanter when compared with those carrying C allele ( P < 0.05). In addition, the BMD of L1–L4 vertebrae, femoral neck, total hip and trochanter decreased by 2.09%, 3.74%, 3.52% and 2.54% in women carrying T alleles compared with those carrying C alleles.

          Conclusion: Our study suggests that polymorphism in IGF-I rs35767 was significantly associated with BMD and osteoporosis in postmenopausal female population, and polymorphism of rs35767 could be a marker for lower BMD and risk of osteoporosis.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

          To clarify the factors associated with prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis, and to present the most recent information available in these areas. From March 27-29, 2000, a nonfederal, nonadvocate, 13-member panel was convened, representing the fields of internal medicine, family and community medicine, endocrinology, epidemiology, orthopedic surgery, gerontology, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynecology, preventive medicine, and cell biology. Thirty-two experts from these fields presented data to the panel and an audience of 699. Primary sponsors were the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and the National Institutes of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research. MEDLINE was searched for January 1995 through December 1999, and a bibliography of 2449 references provided to the panel. Experts prepared abstracts for presentations with relevant literature citations. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed conclusions based on evidence presented in open forum and the literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read and circulated to the experts and the audience for public discussion. The panel resolved conflicts and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The draft statement was posted on the Web on March 30, 2000, and updated with the panel's final revisions within a few weeks. Though prevalent in white postmenopausal women, osteoporosis occurs in all populations and at all ages and has significant physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences. Risks for osteoporosis (reflected by low bone mineral density [BMD]) and for fracture overlap but are not identical. More attention should be paid to skeletal health in persons with conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis. Clinical risk factors have an important but poorly validated role in determining who should have BMD measurement, in assessing fracture risk, and in determining who should be treated. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is crucial to develop optimal peak bone mass and to preserve bone mass throughout life. Supplementation with these 2 nutrients may be necessary in persons not achieving recommended dietary intake. Gonadal steroids are important determinants of peak and lifetime bone mass in men, women, and children. Regular exercise, especially resistance and high-impact activities, contributes to development of high peak bone mass and may reduce risk of falls in older persons. Assessment of bone mass, identification of fracture risk, and determination of who should be treated are the optimal goals when evaluating patients for osteoporosis. Fracture prevention is the primary treatment goal for patients with osteoporosis. Several treatments have been shown to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures, including those that enhance bone mass and reduce the risk or consequences of falls. Adults with vertebral, rib, hip, or distal forearm fractures should be evaluated for osteoporosis and given appropriate therapy.
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            Circulating levels of IGF-1 directly regulate bone growth and density.

            IGF-1 is a growth-promoting polypeptide that is essential for normal growth and development. In serum, the majority of the IGFs exist in a 150-kDa complex including the IGF molecule, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and the acid labile subunit (ALS). This complex prolongs the half-life of serum IGFs and facilitates their endocrine actions. Liver IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice and ALS knockout (ALSKO) mice exhibited relatively normal growth and development, despite having 75% and 65% reductions in serum IGF-1 levels, respectively. Double gene disrupted mice were generated by crossing LID+ALSKO mice. These mice exhibited further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels and a significant reduction in linear growth. The proximal growth plates of the tibiae of LID+ALSKO mice were smaller in total height as well as in the height of the proliferative and hypertrophic zones of chondrocytes. There was also a 10% decrease in bone mineral density and a greater than 35% decrease in periosteal circumference and cortical thickness in these mice. IGF-1 treatment for 4 weeks restored the total height of the proximal growth plate of the tibia. Thus, the double gene disruption LID+ALSKO mouse model demonstrates that a threshold concentration of circulating IGF-1 is necessary for normal bone growth and suggests that IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and ALS play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis.
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              Increased serum sclerostin and decreased serum IGF-1 are associated with vertebral fractures among postmenopausal women with type-2 diabetes.

              Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a determinant of bone mass and is inversely associated with vertebral fractures (VFs). Sclerostin regulates bone formation by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Currently, there is little information on circulating sclerostin levels among postmenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with VFs in relation to serum IGF-1 (s-IGF-1). We investigated the relationships between serum sclerostin, s-IGF-1, and VFs in postmenopausal women with T2DM. We assessed cross-sectionally 482 postmenopausal women with T2DM and 482 age-matched postmenopausal women without T2DM who were recruited at diabetic clinics and primary health care centers for inclusion in a bone health survey. The main outcome measures were serum sclerostin, s-IGF-1, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone turnover markers. Lateral X-rays of the thoracic and lumbar spine were taken to diagnose VFs. Serum sclerostin levels were increased, whereas s-IGF-1 levels were decreased when T2DM women were stratified by the number of VFs (P<0.0001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that serum sclerostin levels were positively associated with 1 VF (odds ratio [OR]=1.27, (95% CI:1.01-2.03), P=0.016), 2 VFs (OR=1.41, (95% CI:1.03-2.36), P=0.006), and ≥3 VFs (OR=1.54, (95% CI:1.12-2.44) P=0.005). s-IGF-1 levels were inversely associated with 1 VF (OR=0.58, (95% CI:0.39-0.88), P=0.041), 2 VFs (OR=0.42, (95% CI:0.21-0.90), P=0.012), and ≥3 VFs (OR=0.19, (95% CI: 0.14-0.27), P<0.001). Increased serum sclerostin and decreased s-IGF-1 were associated with VFs among postmenopausal women with T2DM, suggesting that sclerostin and/or IGF-1 may be involved in increased bone fragility in T2DM and could be potential markers of VF severity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Pak J Med Sci
                Pak J Med Sci
                Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences
                Professional Medical Publicaitons (Karachi, Pakistan )
                Jan-Feb 2014
                : 30
                : 1
                : 131-135
                [1 ]Li Yun-Kai, The Fifth Surgical Department, The Fourth People’s Hospital, Jinan, 250013, China.
                [2 ]Wang Hui, Department of Stomatology, Jinan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital,Jinan, 250012, China.
                [3 ]Zhu Xin-wei, The Fifth Surgical Department, The Fourth People’s Hospital, Jinan, 250013, China.
                [4 ]Guo Liang, Department of Radiotherapy, The Fourth People’s Hospital, Jinan, 250013, China.
                [5 ]Zuo Jin-liang, The Fifth Surgical Department, The Fourth People’s Hospital, Jinan, 250013, China.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zuo Jin-liang, The Fifth Surgical Department, The Fourth People’s Hospital, Jinan, China. E-mail: zuojl_fph@163.com

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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