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      Sugar Codes Conjugated Alginate: An Innovative Platform to Make a Strategic Breakthrough in Simultaneous Prophylaxis of GERD and Helicobacter pylori Infection

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Currently, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most ubiquitous problems in clinical practice. An antacid-alginate combination (under the trade name Gaviscon) is a natural-based product that effectively suppresses GERD. This product acts via the formation of viscous gel that floats on the top of the gastric content. On the other hand, efficient management of Helicobacter pylori infection with minimal side effects is an important goal for gastroenterologists. Furthermore, some H. pylori-positive patients suffer from GERD.

          Methods

          Here, we present the results of investigations on alginate conjugated to sugar codes in order to find initial clues regarding the potential ability of this conjugate in the simultaneous prophylaxis of GERD and H. pylori infection in an in vitro assay.

          Results

          It is noteworthy that our results reveal that sugar codes conjugated alginate considerably decrease (approximately 74%) the adhesion of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells in vitro. Moreover, surprisingly after conjugation of sugar codes, alginate can maintain its ability to create gel. Our results demonstrate that alginate conjugated to sugar codes is not cytotoxic.

          Conclusion

          The preparation of these conjugates can be regarded as the first step to establish a new roadmap for the simultaneous prevention of GERD and H. pylori infection in future studies on in vivo models.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Roles of galectins in infection.

           Gerardo Vasta (2009)
          Galectins, which were first characterized in the mid-1970s, were assigned a role in the recognition of endogenous ('self') carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis, development and immune regulation. Recently, however, galectins have been shown to bind glycans on the surface of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, and function as recognition and effector factors in innate immunity. Some parasites subvert the recognition roles of the vector or host galectins to ensure successful attachment or invasion. This Review discusses the role of galectins in microbial infection, with particular emphasis on adaptations of pathogens to evasion or subversion of host galectin-mediated immune responses.
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            A streptavidin variant with slower biotin dissociation and increased mechanostability

            Streptavidin binds biotin-conjugates with exceptional stability, but dissociation does occur and can be limiting in imaging, DNA amplification, and nanotechnology. We identified a mutant streptavidin, which we call traptavidin, showing ~10-fold slower biotin off-rate, increased mechanical strength, and improved thermostability; this resilience should find diverse applications. We show that the motor protein FtsK could strip proteins from DNA, rapidly displacing streptavidin from biotinylated DNA; traptavidin resisted displacement and thus indicated the force generated by FtsK translocation.
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              Is there an increased risk of GERD after Helicobacter pylori eradication?: a meta-analysis.

              Some studies suggest that eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) might increase the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in a portion of patients. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to investigate this. A comprehensive, English, multiple-source literature search was performed from 1983 to February 2007. Only randomized controlled trial (RCT) and cohort studies comparing the prevalence of GERD in patients free from GERD at baseline with Hp eradication vs. those with persistent Hp were included. Quality of RCTs and cohorts was assessed by Jadad and New Castle-Ottawa scores, respectively. Meta-analysis of pooled odds ratios (ORs) was performed using Review Manager 4.2.10. Twelve (7 RCTs and 5 cohorts) of 271 articles were included. In six RCTs using erosive GERD as outcome, the OR for the frequency of GERD in Hp eradicated group vs. persistent Hp group was 1.11 (0.81-1.53, P=0.52). In five RCTs using symptomatic outcome, the OR for the frequency of GERD in Hp eradicated group vs. persistent Hp was 1.22 (0.89-1.69, P=0.22). In cohort studies, the OR for the frequency of GERD in Hp eradicated group vs. persistent Hp was 1.37 (0.89-2.12; P=0.15). Test of heterogeneity was not significant for any analyses. The results were consistent in subgroup and sensitivity analyses, including cohort studies vs. RCTs, high-quality studies vs. low-quality studies, and use of endoscopic vs. symptomatic outcomes except for the subgroup of patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in cohort studies (OR: 2.04 (1.08-3.85); P=0.03). There is no association between Hp eradication and development of new cases of GERD in the population of dyspeptic patients. However, in cohort studies, there seems to be a twofold higher risk of development of erosive GERD in patients with PUD. The effect in RCTs of patients with PUD did not show a significant difference.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                17 June 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 2405-2412
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]Peptide Chemistry Research Center, K. N. Toosi University of Technology , Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [5 ]Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine , Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan
                [6 ]Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Ruprecht-Karls-University , Heidelberg, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ismaeil Haririan Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran Email haririan@tums.ac.ir
                Article
                255611
                10.2147/DDDT.S255611
                7306573
                © 2020 Moayedi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 36, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

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