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      Implementación de un protocolo de anestesia raquídea para reparación de hernia inguinal en lactantes nacidos prematuros. Experiencia en el Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell

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          Abstract

          Introducción: la anestesia raquídea está asociada a una menor incidencia de complicaciones respiratorias y una más rápida recuperación en relación a la anestesia general en lactantes exprematuros (menos de 37 semanas) sometidos a cirugía de reparación de hernia inguinal antes de las 60 semanas. Objetivo: presentar la experiencia de implementación de un protocolo en 15 niños con estas características. Material y método: los pacientes no presentaban comorbilidades, la paraclínica preoperatoria fue normal y la saturación periférica de oxígeno (SpO2) al aire entre 98% y 99%. La punción se realizó con agujas 25G Quincke 2,5 cm de longitud en posición sentada. Se administraron 0,5 ml de bupivacaína, 0,5% hiperbárica. Resultados: la técnica fue exitosa en 11 casos; de los cuatro fracasos, en tres no se accedió al espacio subaracnoideo y en un paciente el tiempo de bloqueo fue insuficiente para finalizar la cirugía requiriendo sedación adicional; promedio de intentos 1,6 ± 0,9 con 66,7% en el primer intento (n = 15); latencia del bloqueo motor 56,7 ± 13,5 seg (n = 12). Para una duración quirúrgica promedio de 46,2 ± 14,8 min, la duración del bloqueo fue de 63,2 ± 8,2 min, lográndose condiciones quirúrgicas adecuadas para finalizar el procedimiento en 11 pacientes. No hubo modificaciones hemodinámicas ni respiratorias significativas, salvo respiración paradojal sin desaturación arterial en dos casos. En sala de recuperación anestésica (SRA) se reinstaló la alimentación habitual junto a la madre, permaneciendo internados 24 horas sin presentar complicaciones. Conclusiones: la evaluación de la aplicación de este protocolo de anestesia raquídea mostró que es seguro, eficaz, y de rápida recuperación en este grupo de pacientes.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: spinal anesthesia is associated to a lower incidence of respiratory complications and a faster recovery when compared to general anesthesia in extremely preterm breastfed babies (younger than 37 weeks) who undergo an inguinal hernia repair surgery before week 60. Objectives: the study aims to present the experience when a protocol was implemented in 15 children who met these criteria. Method: the patients did not evidence comorbility factors, the preoperative paraclinical studies were normal and the peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) on room air was between 98% and 99%. Puncture was done with 2.5 cm long 25G Quincke needle on a sitting down position. The patient was given 0.5 cc of hyperbaric bupivacaine, 0.5%. Results: the technique was successful in 11 cases, in three out of the four failures the subarachnoid space could not be accessed and in one patient the anesthetic time was not enough to complete the surgery and additional sedation was needed. Average number of attempts was 1.6 ± 0,9 with 66.7% in the first case (n = 15); motor anesthetic latency 56.7 ± 13.5 sec (n = 12). For an average length of surgery of 46.2 ± 14.8 min, anesthesia lasted 63.2 ± 8.2 min, achieving adequate surgical conditions to complete the procedure in 11 patients. There were no significant hemodynamic or respiratory modifications, except for the paradoxical breathing with no arterial desaturation in two cases. Regular feeding was reinitiated in the anesthesia recovery room along with the mother, and they stayed 24 hours hospitalized without evidencing complications. Conclusions: the evaluation of the application of this protocol for spinal anesthesia showed it is a safe and effective technique with a fast recovery for this group of patients.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo Introdução: a anestesia raquidiana está associada a uma menor incidência de complicações respiratórias e recuperação mais rápida em comparação com a anestesia geral em lactantes ex-prematuros (menos de 37 semanas) submetidos à cirurgia de reparação de hérnia inguinal antes da idade pós conceptual de 60 semanas. Objetivos: apresentar a experiência de implementação de um protocolo em 15 crianças com estas características. Material e método: os pacientes não apresentavam comorbidades, os exames complementares pré-operatórios eram normais e a saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2) em ar entre 98% e 99%. A punção foi feita com agulhas 25G Quincke 2,5 cm de longitude com o paciente sentado. Foram administradas 0,5 cc de bupivacaína, 0,5% hiperbárica. Resultados: a técnica foi bem sucedida em 11 casos; dos quatro fracassos, em três não foi possível chegar ao espaço subaracnóideo e em um paciente o tempo de bloqueio não foi suficiente para terminar a cirurgia requerendo sedação adicional; a média de tentativas foi de 1,6 ± 0,9 com 66,7% na primeira tentativa (n = 15); latência do bloqueio motor 56,7 ± 13,5 seg (n = 12). Para uma cirurgia com duração média de 46,2 ± 14,8 min, a duração do bloqueio foi de 63,2 ± 8,2 min, obtendo-se condições cirúrgicas adequadas para finalizar o procedimento em 11 pacientes. Não foram observadas modificações hemodinâmicas nem respiratórias significativas, exceto respiração paradoxal sem dessaturação arterial em dois casos. Na sala de recuperação anestésica (SRA) a alimentação habitual junto com a mãe foi reinstituída, permanecendo internadas 24 horas sem apresentar complicações. Conclusões: a avaliação da aplicação deste protocolo de anestesia raquidiana mostrou que é seguro, eficaz, e com rápida recuperação neste grupo de pacientes.

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          Most cited references31

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          Postoperative apnea in former preterm infants: prospective comparison of spinal and general anesthesia.

          Thirty-six former preterm infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair were studied. All were less than or equal to 51 weeks postconceptual age at the time of operation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive general or spinal anesthesia. Group 1 patients received general inhalational anesthesia with neuromuscular blockade. Group 2 patients received spinal anesthesia using 1% tetracaine 0.4-0.6 mg/kg in conjunction with an equal volume of 10% dextrose and 0.02 ml epinephrine 1:1000. In the first part of the study, infants randomized to receive spinal anesthesia also received sedation with im ketamine 1-2 mg/kg prior to placement of the spinal anesthetic (group 2 A). The remainder of group 2 patients did not receive sedation (group 2 B). Respiratory pattern and heart rate were monitored using an impedance pneumograph for at least 12 h postoperatively. Tracings were analyzed for evidence of apnea, periodic breathing and/or bradycardia by a pulmonologist unaware of the anesthetic technique utilized. None of the patients who received spinal anesthesia without ketamine sedation developed postoperative bradycardia, prolonged apnea, or periodic breathing. Eight of nine infants (89%) who received spinal anesthesia and adjunct intraoperative sedation with ketamine developed prolonged apnea with bradycardia. Two of the eight infants had no prior history of apnea. Five of the 16 patients (31%) who received general anesthesia developed prolonged apnea with bradycardia. Two of these five infants had no prior history of apnea. When infants with no prior history of apnea were analyzed separately, there was no statistically significant increased incidence of apnea in children receiving general versus spinal anesthesia with or without ketamine sedation. Because of the small numbers of patients studied, and the multiple factors that may influence the incidence of postoperative apnea (e.g., prior history of neonatal apnea), standard postoperative respiratory monitoring of these high-risk infants is still recommended following all anesthetic techniques.
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            Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy in early infancy.

            With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more preterm infants are surviving the neonatal period and presenting for surgery in early infancy. Inguinal hernia is the most common condition requiring early surgery, appearing in 38% of infants whose birth weight is between 751 grams and 1000 grams. Approximately 20% to 30% of otherwise healthy preterm infants having general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery at a postmature age have at least one apnoeic episode within the postoperative period. Research studies have failed to adequately distinguish the effects of apnoeic episodes from other complications of extreme preterm gestation on the risk of brain injury, or to investigate the potential impact of postoperative apnoea upon longer term neurodevelopment. In addition to episodes of apnoea, there are concerns that anaesthetic and sedative agents may have a direct toxic effect on the developing brain of preterm infants even after reaching postmature age. It is proposed that regional anaesthesia may reduce the risk of postoperative apnoea, avoid the risk of anaesthetic-related neurotoxicity and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants requiring surgery for inguinal hernia at a postmature age.
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              Spinal anesthesia in neonates and infants - a single-center experience of 505 cases.

              Our aim was to assess the safety and efficacy of spinal anesthesia (SA) in newborns and infants undergoing surgery appropriate for this technique. The files of 505 patients who underwent surgery under spinal anesthesia since 1998 at a major tertiary hospital in Israel were analyzed retrospectively. SA was performed with bupivacaine 5 mgxml(-1) by attending pediatric anesthesiologists or an anesthesia resident. Demographic data, prematurity history, comorbidities, technical data, cardiovascular stability, complications and supplementary drugs were documented. The surgeon assessed the quality of anesthesia at the end of surgery. Appropriate SA was achieved in 95.3% of cases; in 69.9% at the first attempt. The mean number of attempts per patient was 1.41 and mean dose of bupivacaine was 0.66 +/- 0.16 mgxkg(-1). Intravenous sedation, usually with midazolam (dose 0.1-0.2 mgxkg(-1)) was required in 28.1% of children because of crying/restlessness. Intraoperative conversion to general anesthesia was necessary in five patients (1.04%). The main side effect was bradycardia (<100 bxmin(-1)) without desaturation which occurred in nine patients (1.8%). In three patients (0.62%), high spinal block occurred without bradycardia and hypotension. None of the patients had postoperative meningitis. SA is safe and effective in newborns and infants undergoing low abdominal, perineal and orthopedic surgery. In order to save time, our advice is to attempt SA after the surgeon is scrubbed, and minimize surgical teaching activity. The need to deal with a small and sometimes sick patient independent of the type of anesthesia requires the presence of an experienced pediatric anesthesiologist.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rmu
                Revista Médica del Uruguay
                Rev. Méd. Urug.
                Sindicato Médico del Uruguay (Montevideo )
                1688-0390
                September 2014
                : 30
                : 3
                : 151-156
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de la República.Facultad de Medicina Uruguay
                [2 ] Universidad de la República.Facultad de Medicina Uruguay
                [3 ] Universidad de la República.Facultad de Medicina Uruguay
                [4 ] Universidad de la República.Facultad de Medicina Uruguay
                [5 ] Universidad de la República.Facultad de Medicina Uruguay
                Article
                S1688-03902014000300002
                1e0b1089-292a-4422-bdeb-166bb396c097

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
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                SciELO Uruguay

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.edu.uy/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1688-0390&lng=en
                Categories
                MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY
                MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL
                MEDICINE, LEGAL
                MEDICINE, RESEARCH & EXPERIMENTAL
                ONCOLOGY
                SURGERY

                Oncology & Radiotherapy,Social law,Medicine,Surgery,Clinical chemistry,Internal medicine
                INFANT PREMATURE,ANESTHESIA SPINAL,INFANT NEWBORN,PROTOCOLS,ANESTESIA RAQUÍDEA,RECIÉN NACIDO,PREMATURO,PROTOCOLOS

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