Rotaviral gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under five years of age worldwide. This comprehensive review aims to estimate the burden of RVGE among children in Central and Eastern Europe. An extensive search of the biomedical literature (1999-2009) was conducted in major databases. Studies pertaining to the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus in Central and Eastern Europe were captured and data from each country was systematically extracted and compared. This literature search captured 38 studies pertaining to RVGE infection in the region. Among children under 15 years of age, RVGE accounted for between 22.0% and 55.3% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis per year. For most countries RVGE was most common in the winter months, although it was reported year round in Bulgaria. Geographical comparison of genotyping data revealed that three genotype combinations, G1P, G4P, and G2P were present in all countries for which full genotyping data was available. Genotype predominance varied on a season to season basis within each country. Only limited data was available for healthcare resource utilization, and economic burden for this region. RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, and mortality. While three genotype combinations currently predominate in the region, the dominance of a certain serotype can change dramatically from year to year and from country to country. A vaccination program with broad serotype coverage may help to decrease the burden of RVGE in Central and Eastern Europe.