The study is focused on microbiological analyses in polar soils in selected monitoring sites in Livingstone Island, Antarctica region. The analyses include determination of the quantity and qualitative composition of the heterotrophic block of soil microflora (non-spore-forming bacteria, bacilli, actinomycetes, micromycetes, bacteria absorbing mineral nitrogen), insofar as it plays a major role in the element cycling and soil formation processes. Aerobic (rapidly and slowly growing) and anaerobic groups of soil microorganisms were investigated and the biogenicity (total microflora) and the rate of mineralisation processes (mineralisation coefficient) were determined. Mostly non-spore-forming aerobic bacteria, followed by actinomycetes, are dominant in determining the biogenicity of the studied polar soils. The rearrangement of the microorganisms in the composition of the total microflora by degree of dominance indicates the participation of all the studied groups of microorganisms in most sites in the initial and final stages of the decomposition of organic matter. The mineralisation of soils is most active in sites with vegetation cover. The established pigmentation in aerobic microorganisms is probably due to their good adaptation and protection under extreme polar conditions, while the absence of oxygen impedes the formation of pigments.