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      Role of Serial Polio Seroprevalence Studies in Guiding Implementation of the Polio Eradication Initiative in Kano, Nigeria: 2011–2014

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          Abstract

          Background.  Nigeria was one of 3 polio-endemic countries before it was de-listed in September 2015 by the World Health Organization, following interruption of transmission of the poliovirus. During 2011–2014, Nigeria conducted serial polio seroprevalence surveys (SPS) in Kano Metropolitan Area, comprising 8 local government areas (LGAs) in Kano that is considered very high risk (VHR) for polio, to monitor performance of the polio eradication program and guide the program in the adoption of innovative strategies.

          Methods.  Study subjects who resided in any of the 8 local government areas of Kano Metropolitan Area and satisfied age criteria were recruited from patients at Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital (Kano) for 3 seroprevalence surveys. The same methods were used to conduct each survey.

          Results.  The 2011 study showed seroprevalence values of 81%, 75%, and 73% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, among infants aged 6–9 months age. Among children aged 36–47 months, seroprevalence values were greater (91%, 87%, and 85% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively).

          In 2013, the results showed that the seroprevalence was unexpectedly low among infants aged 6–9 months, remained high among children aged 36–47 months, and increased minimally among children aged 5–9 years and those aged 10–14 years. The baseline seroprevalence among infants aged 6–9 months in 2014 was better than that in 2013.

          Conclusions.  The results from the polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in Kano Metropolitan Area in 2011, 2013, and 2014 served to assess the trends in immunity and program performance, as well as to guide the program, leading to various interventions being implemented with good effect, as evidenced by the reduction of poliovirus circulation in Kano.

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          Perspectives on polio and immunization in Northern Nigeria.

          Through the efforts of the global campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, polio cases have declined worldwide, from 35,251 cases in 1988, to 1449 cases as of 28 October 2005. However, confirmed cases of wild polio virus continue to be reported from Northern Nigeria. This paper examines the reasons for the difficulties in eradicating polio in Northern Nigeria from the perspective of residents of one town, Zaria, in northern Kaduna State. Research methods included participant observation, open-ended interviews and the collection of polio-related documents. While some people believed that the vaccine was contaminated by anti-fertility substances, others questioned the focus on polio when measles and malaria were considered more harmful. Some also distrusted claims about the safety of Western biomedicine. These concerns relate to questions about the appropriateness of vertical health interventions, where levels of routine immunization are low. While the Polio Eradication Initiative was considered to be cost-effective by Western donors, from the perspective of some people in Zaria it was seen as undermining primary health care, suggesting that a collaborative, community-based framework for primary health care, which includes routine immunization, would be a more acceptable approach.
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            Outbreak of Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in Nigeria: Emergence and Widespread Circulation in an Underimmunized Population

            Wild poliovirus has remained endemic in northern Nigeria because of low coverage achieved in the routine immunization program and in supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). An outbreak of infection involving 315 cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2; >1% divergent from Sabin 2) occurred during July 2005–June 2010, a period when 23 of 34 SIAs used monovalent or bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) lacking Sabin 2. In addition, 21 “pre-VDPV2” (0.5%–1.0% divergent) cases occurred during this period. Both cVDPV and pre-VDPV cases were clinically indistinguishable from cases due to wild poliovirus. The monthly incidence of cases increased sharply in early 2009, as more children aged without trivalent OPV SIAs. Cumulative state incidence of pre-VDPV2/cVDPV2 was correlated with low childhood immunization against poliovirus type 2 assessed by various means. Strengthened routine immunization programs in countries with suboptimal coverage and balanced use of OPV formulations in SIAs are necessary to minimize risks of VDPV emergence and circulation.
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              Immunogenicity of bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

              Poliovirus types 1 and 3 co-circulate in poliomyelitis-endemic countries. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity of a novel bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV). We did a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the superiority of monovalent type 2 OPV (mOPV2), mOPV3, or bOPV over trivalent OPV (tOPV), and the non-inferiority of bivalent vaccine compared with mOPV1 and mOPV3. The study was done at three centres in India between Aug 6, 2008, and Dec 26, 2008. Random allocation was done by permuted blocks of ten. The primary outcome was seroconversion after one monovalent or bivalent vaccine dose compared with a dose of trivalent vaccine at birth. The secondary endpoints were seroconversion after two vaccine doses compared with after two trivalent vaccine doses and cumulative two-dose seroconversion. Parents or guardians and study investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Because of multiple comparisons, we defined p≤0·01 as statistically significant. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN 64725429. 900 newborn babies were randomly assigned to one of five vaccine groups (about 180 patients per group); of these 70 (8%) discontinued, leaving 830 (92%) for analysis. After the first dose, seroconversion to poliovirus type 1 was 20% for both mOPV1 (33 of 168) and bOPV (32 of 159) compared with 15% for tOPV (25 of 168; p>0·01), to poliovirus type 2 was 21% (35 of 170) for mOPV2 compared with 25% (42 of 168) for tOPV (p>0·01), and to poliovirus type 3 was 12% (20 of 165) for mOPV3 and 7% (11 of 159) for bOPV compared with 4% (7 of 168) for tOPV (mOPV3 vs tOPV p=0·01; bOPV vs tOPV; p>0·01). Cumulative two-dose seroconversion to poliovirus type 1 was 90% (151 of 168) for mOPV1 and 86% (136 of 159) for bOPV compared with 63% (106 of 168) for tOPV (p 0·01), and to poliovirus type 3 was 84% (138 of 165) for mOPV3 and 74% (117 of 159) for bOPV compared with 52% (87 of 168) for tOPV (p<0·0001). The vaccines were well tolerated. 19 serious adverse events occurred, including one death; however, these events were not attributed to the trial interventions. The findings show the superiority of bOPV compared with tOPV, and the non-inferiority of bOPV compared with mOPV1 and mOPV3. GAVI Alliance, World Health Organization, and Panacea Biotec. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Infect Dis
                J. Infect. Dis
                jid
                jinfdis
                The Journal of Infectious Diseases
                Oxford University Press
                0022-1899
                1537-6613
                01 May 2016
                02 April 2016
                02 April 2016
                : 213
                : Suppl 3 , Best Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) Practices in Nigeria With Support From the WHO
                : S124-S130
                Affiliations
                [1 ]World Health Organization, Country Representative Office
                [2 ]National Primary Health Care Development Agency , Abuja
                [3 ]Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital
                [4 ]Bayero University , Kano, Nigeria
                [5 ]World Health Organization , Geneva, Switzerland
                [6 ]World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa , Brazzaville, Congo
                [7 ]Global Public Health Solutions , Atlanta, Georgia
                Author notes

                Presented in part: 15th Polio Research Committee Meeting, WHO HQ, Geneva, Switzerland, 24 April 2015.

                Correspondence: K. T. Craig, World Health Organization, Nigeria Country Office, UN House, Plot 617/618 Diplomatic Drive, Central Area District, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria ( craigk@ 123456who.int ).
                Article
                jiv774
                10.1093/infdis/jiv774
                4818560
                26908720
                1e9c197a-1e0d-428f-8a45-ce5eb0450ca1
                © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution IGO License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/legalcode), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In any reproduction of this article there should not be any suggestion that WHO or this article endorse any specific organisation or products. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article's original URL.

                History
                Funding
                Funded by: Rotary International
                Funded by: WHO
                Categories
                Best Polio Eradication Initiative (Pei) Practices in Nigeria with Support from the WHO

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                seroprevalence,poliomyelitis,kano,nigeria,dopv
                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                seroprevalence, poliomyelitis, kano, nigeria, dopv

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