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      Chronic Inflammation and Cytokines in the Tumor Microenvironment

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          Abstract

          Acute inflammation is a response to an alteration induced by a pathogen or a physical or chemical insult, which functions to eliminate the source of the damage and restore homeostasis to the affected tissue. However, chronic inflammation triggers cellular events that can promote malignant transformation of cells and carcinogenesis. Several inflammatory mediators, such as TNF- α , IL-6, TGF- β , and IL-10, have been shown to participate in both the initiation and progression of cancer. In this review, we explore the role of these cytokines in important events of carcinogenesis, such as their capacity to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their potential mutagenic effect, and their involvement in mechanisms for epithelial mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Finally, we will provide an in-depth analysis of the participation of these cytokines in two types of cancer attributable to chronic inflammatory disease: colitis-associated colorectal cancer and cholangiocarcinoma.

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          Origin and physiological roles of inflammation.

          Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Although the pathological aspects of many types of inflammation are well appreciated, their physiological functions are mostly unknown. The classic instigators of inflammation - infection and tissue injury - are at one end of a large range of adverse conditions that induce inflammation, and they trigger the recruitment of leukocytes and plasma proteins to the affected tissue site. Tissue stress or malfunction similarly induces an adaptive response, which is referred to here as para-inflammation. This response relies mainly on tissue-resident macrophages and is intermediate between the basal homeostatic state and a classic inflammatory response. Para-inflammation is probably responsible for the chronic inflammatory conditions that are associated with modern human diseases.
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            Carcinoma-produced factors activate myeloid cells through TLR2 to stimulate metastasis.

            Metastatic progression depends on genetic alterations intrinsic to cancer cells as well as the inflammatory microenvironment of advanced tumours. To understand how cancer cells affect the inflammatory microenvironment, we conducted a biochemical screen for macrophage-activating factors secreted by metastatic carcinomas. Here we show that, among the cell lines screened, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) were the most potent macrophage activators leading to production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) through activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members TLR2 and TLR6. Both TNF-alpha and TLR2 were found to be required for LLC metastasis. Biochemical purification of LLC-conditioned medium (LCM) led to identification of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan versican, which is upregulated in many human tumours including lung cancer, as a macrophage activator that acts through TLR2 and its co-receptors TLR6 and CD14. By activating TLR2:TLR6 complexes and inducing TNF-alpha secretion by myeloid cells, versican strongly enhances LLC metastatic growth. These results explain how advanced cancer cells usurp components of the host innate immune system, including bone-marrow-derived myeloid progenitors, to generate an inflammatory microenvironment hospitable for metastatic growth.
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              Biology of interleukin-10.

              Interleukin (IL)-10 is the most important cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties besides TGF-β and IL-35. It is produced by activated immune cells, in particular monocytes/macrophages and T cell subsets including Tr1, Treg, and Th1 cells. IL-10 acts through a transmembrane receptor complex, which is composed of IL-10R1 and IL-10R2, and regulates the functions of many different immune cells. In monocytes/macrophages, IL-10 diminishes the production of inflammatory mediators and inhibits antigen presentation, although it enhances their uptake of antigens. Additionally, IL-10 plays an important role in the biology of B cells and T cells. The special physiological relevance of this cytokine lies in the prevention and limitation of over-whelming specific and unspecific immune reactions and, in consequence, of tissue damage. At the same time, IL-10 strengthens the "scavenger"-function and contributes to induced tolerance. This review provides an overview about the cellular sources, molecular mechanisms, effects, and biological role of IL-10. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Immunol Res
                J Immunol Res
                JIR
                Journal of Immunology Research
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-8861
                2314-7156
                2014
                13 May 2014
                : 2014
                : 149185
                Affiliations
                1Disciplinary Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Independencia 1027, 8380453 Santiago, Chile
                2Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
                Author notes
                *Marcela A. Hermoso: mhermoso@ 123456med.uchile.cl

                Academic Editor: Evelin Grage-Griebenow

                Article
                10.1155/2014/149185
                4036716
                24901008
                1f1df660-2d67-4923-a729-3aa14bc1cc8d
                Copyright © 2014 Glauben Landskron et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 10 February 2014
                : 15 April 2014
                Funding
                Funded by: FONDECYT
                Award ID: 1120577
                Funded by: CONICYT
                Award ID: REDES130037
                Categories
                Review Article

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