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      Soundtrack: An Auditory Interface for Blind Users

      Human-Computer Interaction

      Informa UK Limited

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          Sound graphs: a numerical data analysis method for the blind.

          A system for the creation of computer-generated sound patterns of two-dimensional line graphs is described. The objectives of the system are to provide the blind with a means of understanding line graphs in the holistic manner used by those with sight. A continuously varying pitch is used to represent motion in the x direction. To test the feasibility of using sound to represent graphs, a prototype system was developed and human factors experimenters were performed. Fourteen subjects were used to compare the tactile-graph methods normally used by the blind to these new sound graphs. It was discovered that mathematical concepts such as symmetry, monotonicity, and the slopes of lines could be determined quickly using sound. Even better performance may be expected with additional training. The flexibility, speed, cost-effectiveness, and greater measure of independence provided the blind or sight-impaired using these methods was demonstrated.
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            Evaluation of text editors

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              HHCI
              Human-Computer Interaction
              Human-Comp. Interaction
              HHCI
              Informa UK Limited
              0737-0024
              March 1 1989
              March 1 1989
              : 4
              : 1
              : 45-66
              Article
              10.1207/s15327051hci0401_2
              1f748f70-ca35-46f7-81b8-3927ebd72843
              © 1989

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