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      Timing of Initiation of the Preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone Surge and Its Relationship with the Circadian Cortisol Rhythm in the Human

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          Abstract

          The relationship between the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been well documented in the rat. In most cases, a negative coupling was observed and an inhibitory effect of the HPA axis upon the HPG was shown. In the female rat, a marked circadian rhythm of corticosterone plasma values is observed during each day of the estrous cycle, with maximal values around 08:00 p.m. The preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge also occurs at 08:00 p.m. on the day of proestrus. Here we measured circadian variations of plasma cortisol in humans in relation with the time of initiation of the preovulatory LH surge. Blood samples were taken at 08:00 a.m., 12:00 a.m., 04:00 p.m., 08:00 p.m., 12:00 p.m., and 04:00 a.m. from 19 subjects for 4 consecutive days, once 17β-estradiol (E<sub>2</sub>) values reached 125 pg/ml (days 7–10 of the menstrual cycle). Serum E<sub>2</sub> and LH determinations were performed by microparticle enzyme immunoassays. Serum progesterone and plasma cortisol determinations were made using RIA methods. For plasma cortisol values, a marked circadian rhythm, with 2- to 3-fold higher values during the morning than during the afternoon, was almost identical before, during and after the LH surge. However, values were generally higher during the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. Maximum cortisol values occurred between 04:00 and 08:00 a.m. and minimal cortisol values between 04:00 and 08:00 p.m. Initiation of the LH surge (50% over the mean of previous values) occurred at 04:00 a.m. (20% of the cases) or at 08:00 a.m. (80% of the cases). There was a strong coupling between the onset of the surge and the acrophase of the cortisol circadian rhythm: maximal cortisol plasma values were seen at 04:00 a.m. when the LH preovulatory surge started at 04:00 a.m. and 08:00 a.m. when it started at 08:00 a.m. The present results show that the positive coupling documented in the female rat between the HPA and the HPG axis at the time of preovulatory LH surge is also present during the menstrual cycle in the human.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Mandatory neuropeptide-steroid signaling for the preovulatory luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone discharge

           S P Kalra (1993)
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            Serotonin-induced stimulation of cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical tissue is mediated through activation of a serotonin4 receptor subtype

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              Validation of the mechanisms proposed for the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of progesterone on gonadotropin secretion in the estrogenprimed rat: a possible role for adrenal steroids

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2002
                March 2002
                21 March 2002
                : 75
                : 3
                : 158-163
                Affiliations
                aThe Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Va., USA; bLaboratoire de Neuroendocrinologie, CNRS-UMR 8638, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Université René-Descartes, Paris, France
                Article
                48233 Neuroendocrinology 2002;75:158–163
                10.1159/000048233
                11914587
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Regulation of Gonadotropin and Prolactin Secretion

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