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      Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified approach


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          The worldwide status of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) as a zoonosis remains of great concern. This article reviews the main risk factors for bTB in cattle based on a three-level classification: animal, herd and region/country level. A distinction is also made, whenever possible, between situations in developed and developing countries as the difference of context might have consequences in terms of risk of bTB. Recommendations are suggested to animal health professionals and scientists directly involved in the control and prevention of bTB in cattle. The determination of Millenium Development Goals for bTB is proposed to improve the control/eradication of the disease worldwide.

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          Cattle movements and bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

          For 20 years, bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been spreading in Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) and is now endemic in the southwest and parts of central England and in southwest Wales, and occurs sporadically elsewhere. Although its transmission pathways remain poorly understood, the disease's distribution was previously modelled statistically by using environmental variables and measures of their seasonality. Movements of infected animals have long been considered a critical factor in the spread of livestock diseases, as reflected in strict import/export regulations, the extensive movement restrictions imposed during the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the tracing procedures after a new case of BTB has been confirmed and the Government's recently published strategic framework for the sustainable control on BTB. Since January 2001 it has been mandatory for stock-keepers in Great Britain to notify the British Cattle Movement Service of all cattle births, movements and deaths. Here we show that movements as recorded in the Cattle Tracing System data archive, and particularly those from areas where BTB is reported, consistently outperform environmental, topographic and other anthropogenic variables as the main predictor of disease occurrence. Simulation distribution models for 2002 and 2003, incorporating all predictor categories, are presented and used to project distributions for 2004 and 2005.
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            The role of wild animal populations in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals: how to assess the risk.

            Tuberculosis is present in wild animal populations in North America, Europe, Africa and New Zealand. Some wild animal populations are a source of infection for domestic livestock and humans. An understanding of the potential of each wild animal population as a reservoir of infection for domestic animals is reached by determining the nature of the disease in each wild animal species, the routes of infection for domestic species and the risk of domestic animals encountering an infectious dose. The mere presence of infection in a wild animal population does not of itself provide evidence of a significant wildlife reservoir. Although at times counterintuitive, wildlife populations with high disease prevalence may not necessarily have a role in the epidemiology of disease in domestic livestock. The key concepts used in deciding whether an infected wild animal population is involved in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic livestock is illustrated by reference to six well-researched cases: the feral pig (Suis scrofa) and feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Australia, white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and other species, such as the ferret (Mustela furo), in New Zealand. A detailed analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Ireland and their role as a reservoir of infection for cattle is also presented.
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              Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging white-tailed deer from Michigan.

              A 4.5 yr-old male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) killed by a hunter during the 1994 firearm hunting season in northeastern Michigan (USA) had lesions suggestive of tuberculosis and was positive on culture for Mycobacterium bovis the causative agent for bovine tuberculosis. Subsequently, a survey of 354 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for tuberculosis was conducted in this area from 15 November 1995 through 5 January 1996. Heads and/or lungs from deer were examined grossly and microscopically for lesions suggestive of bovine tuberculosis. Gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were seen in 15 deer. Tissues from 16 deer had acid-fast bacilli on histological examination and in 12 cases mycobacterial isolates from lymph nodes and/or lungs were identified as M. bovis. In addition, lymph nodes from 12 deer (11 females and 1 male) without gross or microscopic lesions were pooled into 1 sample from which M. bovis was cultured. Although more male (9) than female (3) deer had bovine tuberculosis infections, this difference was not statistically significant. Mycobacterium bovis culture positive deer ranged in age from 1.5 to 5.5 yr with a mean of 2.7 yr (median 2.5 yr) for males and 3.2 yr (median 3.5 yr) for females. This appears to be the first epidemic occurrence of M. bovis in free-ranging cervids in North America. A combination of environmental (high deer density and poor quality habit) and management-related factors (extensive supplemental feeding) may be responsible for this epizootic.

                Author and article information

                Vet Res
                Veterinary Research
                EDP Sciences
                Sep-Oct 2009
                06 June 2009
                06 June 2009
                : 40
                : 5 ( publisher-idID: vetres/2009/05 )
                : 50
                [1 ]simpleResearch Unit in Epidemiology and Risk Analysis applied to Veterinary Sciences, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège , B42, Boulevard de Colonster 20 4000 Liège – Sart TilmanBelgium
                [2 ]simpleNational and OIE/FAO Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratories, Bacterial Zoonoses Unit – Animal Diseases and Zoonoses Research Laboratory, French Food Safety Agency , 23 avenue du Général-de-Gaulle 94706 Maisons-Alfort CedexFrance
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: claude.saegerman@ 123456ulg.ac.be
                10.1051/vetres/2009033 v09132
                © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2009

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any noncommercial medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 13 October 2008
                : 04 June 2009
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 126, Pages: 24
                Review Article

                Veterinary medicine
                zoonosis,cattle,risk factor,epidemiology,mycobacterium bovis
                Veterinary medicine
                zoonosis, cattle, risk factor, epidemiology, mycobacterium bovis


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