Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Children's Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children's observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 69

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Amazon's Mechanical Turk: A New Source of Inexpensive, Yet High-Quality, Data?

        Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a relatively new website that contains the major elements required to conduct research: an integrated participant compensation system; a large participant pool; and a streamlined process of study design, participant recruitment, and data collection. In this article, we describe and evaluate the potential contributions of MTurk to psychology and other social sciences. Findings indicate that (a) MTurk participants are slightly more demographically diverse than are standard Internet samples and are significantly more diverse than typical American college samples; (b) participation is affected by compensation rate and task length, but participants can still be recruited rapidly and inexpensively; (c) realistic compensation rates do not affect data quality; and (d) the data obtained are at least as reliable as those obtained via traditional methods. Overall, MTurk can be used to obtain high-quality data inexpensively and rapidly.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The weirdest people in the world?

          Behavioral scientists routinely publish broad claims about human psychology and behavior in the world's top journals based on samples drawn entirely from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic (WEIRD) societies. Researchers - often implicitly - assume that either there is little variation across human populations, or that these "standard subjects" are as representative of the species as any other population. Are these assumptions justified? Here, our review of the comparative database from across the behavioral sciences suggests both that there is substantial variability in experimental results across populations and that WEIRD subjects are particularly unusual compared with the rest of the species - frequent outliers. The domains reviewed include visual perception, fairness, cooperation, spatial reasoning, categorization and inferential induction, moral reasoning, reasoning styles, self-concepts and related motivations, and the heritability of IQ. The findings suggest that members of WEIRD societies, including young children, are among the least representative populations one could find for generalizing about humans. Many of these findings involve domains that are associated with fundamental aspects of psychology, motivation, and behavior - hence, there are no obvious a priori grounds for claiming that a particular behavioral phenomenon is universal based on sampling from a single subpopulation. Overall, these empirical patterns suggests that we need to be less cavalier in addressing questions of human nature on the basis of data drawn from this particularly thin, and rather unusual, slice of humanity. We close by proposing ways to structurally re-organize the behavioral sciences to best tackle these challenges.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
            2Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
            3Mississauga Academy of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
            4Department of Computer Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
            5Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
            Author notes
            *Kenneth D. Craig: kcraig@ 123456psych.ubc.ca

            Academic Editor: Filippo Brighina

            Journal
            Pain Res Manag
            Pain Res Manag
            PRM
            Pain Research & Management
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            1203-6765
            1918-1523
            2017
            21 February 2017
            : 2017
            5339532
            10.1155/2017/3017837
            Copyright © 2017 Kamal Kaur Sekhon et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Funding
            Funded by: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
            Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research
            Categories
            Research Article

            Comments

            Comment on this article