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      Longitudinal Changes in Body Composition by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Among Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Youth: Increased Risk of Adiposity Among HIV-Infected Female Youth

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          Abstract

          Background

          Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has allowed youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV+) to live into adulthood, but many youth may experience metabolic and body composition changes that predispose to greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This longitudinal study evaluated changes in body composition measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cohort of PHIV+ youth compared to HIV− controls over a 7-year period.

          Methods

          PHIV+ youth and HIV− controls were prospectively enrolled in a single-site study to assess nutrition and CVD risk. Anthropometrics and DXA scans were longitudinally obtained to assess percent body fat and regional fat distribution. Using general linear models, we analyzed differences in body composition and anthropometric measures by sex between PHIV+ youth and controls over time.

          Results

          235 participants (156 PHIV+, 79 HIV− controls) with at least one DXA performed since study enrollment were included for analysis. During the study period, 471 DXAs were obtained in the PHIV+ group and 95 in HIV− controls. PHIV+ females demonstrated greater increase in weight and BMI over time compared to HIV− females, and significant increases in total percent body fat (estimate=1.212 [95%CI=0.837, 1.587] percent per year, p<0.001) and percent trunk fat (1.3818 [95%CI=0.922, 1.84], p<0.001) compared to HIV− females and PHIV+ males.

          Conclusion

          PHIV+ females demonstrate an unfavorable change in fat redistribution and percent body fat over time that exceeds the pattern seen in PHIV+ males or HIV− females. Providers should have heightened awareness of body composition changes of PHIV+ females that may eventually lead to increased CVD risk.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          8701858
          6404
          Pediatr Infect Dis J
          Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
          The Pediatric infectious disease journal
          0891-3668
          1532-0987
          20 February 2018
          October 2018
          01 October 2019
          : 37
          : 10
          : 1002-1007
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
          [2 ]University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences, St Augustine, FL, USA
          [3 ]Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
          [4 ]Discipline of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
          [5 ]Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
          [6 ]Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
          Author notes
          Corresponding author/reprints: Tanvi Sharma, MD, MPH, Boston Children’s Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases, 300 Longwood Avenue, BCH 3118, Boston, MA 02115, Phone: (617) 919-2900; Fax: (617) 730-0911; Tanvi.sharma@ 123456childrens.harvard.edu
          Article
          PMC6105572 PMC6105572 6105572 nihpa944738
          10.1097/INF.0000000000001963
          6105572
          29474262
          Categories
          Article

          HIV, youth, dual X-ray absorptiometry, body composition

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