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      First report of pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus larvae (Say, 1821) from Iran.

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          Abstract

          Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important hard ticks parasitizing cattle in northern Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate pyrethroid resistance levels of this species from Nur County, northern Iran. The hard ticks were collected through a multistage cluster randomized sampling method from the study area and fully engorged female R. (B.) annulatus were reared in a controlled insectary until they produced larvae for bioassay. Seventeen populations of the hard ticks were bioassayed with cypermethrin and 12 populations with lambda-cyhalothrin using a modified larval packet test (LPT). Biochemical assays to measure the contents/activity of different enzyme groups including mixed function oxidases (MFOs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and general esterases were performed. Population 75 showed a resistance ratio of 4.05 with cypermethrin when compared with the most susceptible field population 66 at the LC50 level. With lambda-cyhalothrin the resistance ratio based on LC50 was 3.67 when compared with the susceptible population. The results of biochemical assays demonstrated significantly elevated levels of GSTs and esterases in populations tested compared with the heterozygous susceptible filed population and a correlation coefficient of these enzymes was found in association to lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. Based on the results, pyrethroid acaricides may operationally fail to control R. (B.) annulatus in North of Iran. This study is the first document of pyrethroid resistance in R. (B.) annulatus populations from Iran.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Acta Trop.
          Acta tropica
          Elsevier BV
          1873-6254
          0001-706X
          Apr 2016
          : 156
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Health Sciences Research Center, Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran; Department of Parasitology, North Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, P.O.Box: 139, Amol, Mazandaran, Iran. Electronic address: ziapour2003@yahoo.com.
          [2 ] Department of Parasitology, North Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, P.O.Box: 139, Amol, Mazandaran, Iran; Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: kheirisadegh@yahoo.com.
          [3 ] Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Khuzestan, Iran. Electronic address: fa57asgarian@gmail.com.
          [4 ] Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Health Sciences Research Center, School of Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. Electronic address: fazelidinan@gmail.com.
          [5 ] Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention Unit, Nur Health Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Nur, Mazandaran, Iran. Electronic address: ffaryz2000@yahoo.com.
          [6 ] Department of Biostatistics, Health Sciences Research Center, School of Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. Electronic address: mohammadpour2002@yahoo.com.
          [7 ] Department of Social Medicine, Diabetes Research Center, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. Electronic address: aarabi@mazums.ac.ir.
          [8 ] Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Health Sciences Research Center, School of Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. Electronic address: aenayati@mazums.ac.ir.
          Article
          S0001-706X(16)30003-1
          10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.01.001
          26772446

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