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      Clinical validation of a nanodiamond-embedded thermoplastic biomaterial

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          Abstract

          <p id="d13065785e434">There is a continued need to advance novel nanomedicine platforms into the clinic to address treatment challenges in oncology, infection, and regenerative medicine, among other areas. As such, this work demonstrates the in-human validation of nanodiamonds through their incorporation into gutta percha [nanodiamond-embedded gutta percha (NDGP)], a polymer that repairs root canal treatment sites following tissue disinfection. A randomized, dual-arm clinical trial was implemented, and study endpoints included confirmation of lesion healing, postoperative pain reduction, and the absence of reinfection. To date, the NDGP-treated patients successfully met the study endpoints. Therefore, these findings support the potential expansion of nanodiamonds, and the broader nanomedicine field, into other disease indications. </p><p class="first" id="d13065785e437">Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising drug delivery and imaging agents due to their uniquely faceted surfaces with diverse chemical groups, electrostatic properties, and biocompatibility. Based on the potential to harness ND properties to clinically address a broad range of disease indications, this work reports the in-human administration of NDs through the development of ND-embedded gutta percha (NDGP), a thermoplastic biomaterial that addresses reinfection and bone loss following root canal therapy (RCT). RCT served as the first clinical indication for NDs since the procedure sites involved nearby circulation, localized administration, and image-guided treatment progress monitoring, which are analogous to many clinical indications. This randomized, single-blind interventional treatment study evaluated NDGP equivalence with unmodified GP. This progress report assessed one control-arm and three treatment-arm patients. At 3-mo and 6-mo follow-up appointments, no adverse events were observed, and lesion healing was confirmed in the NDGP-treated patients. Therefore, this study is a foundation for the continued clinical translation of NDs and other nanomaterials for a broad spectrum of applications. </p>

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          Most cited references 49

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          Hydrogels in Biology and Medicine: From Molecular Principles to Bionanotechnology

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            The properties and applications of nanodiamonds.

            Nanodiamonds have excellent mechanical and optical properties, high surface areas and tunable surface structures. They are also non-toxic, which makes them well suited to biomedical applications. Here we review the synthesis, structure, properties, surface chemistry and phase transformations of individual nanodiamonds and clusters of nanodiamonds. In particular we discuss the rational control of the mechanical, chemical, electronic and optical properties of nanodiamonds through surface doping, interior doping and the introduction of functional groups. These little gems have a wide range of potential applications in tribology, drug delivery, bioimaging and tissue engineering, and also as protein mimics and a filler material for nanocomposites.
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              Design of environment-sensitive supramolecular assemblies for intracellular drug delivery: polymeric micelles that are responsive to intracellular pH change.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                November 07 2017
                November 07 2017
                : 114
                : 45
                : E9445-E9454
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.1711924114
                5692571
                29078364
                © 2017

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