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      Global burden of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer attributable to occupational carcinogens in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2019: results from the global burden of disease study 2019

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          Abstract

          Background

          Occupational-related cancers are a substantial global health issue. The largest proportion of occupational-related cancers is tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer. This study aimed to explore the geographical and temporal trends in occupational carcinogens related to TBL cancer.

          Methods

          Data on TBL cancer attributable to occupational carcinogens were collected from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Numbers and age-standardized rates (ASRs) of deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and corresponding average annual percentage change (AAPC) were evaluated and stratified by geographic location, socio-demographic index (SDI) quintiles, age, and sex.

          Results

          Globally, ASRs of deaths and DALYs in TBL cancer attributable to occupational carcinogens showed a downward trend (AAPC = − 0.69%, − 1.01%) while increases were observed in the low, low-middle, and middle SDI quintiles. Although males accounted for 82.4% and 81.5% of deaths and DALYs in 2019, respectively, it showed an upward trend of ASRs in females (AAPC = 0.33%, 0.02%). Occupational exposure to asbestos, silica and diesel engine exhaust were the top three causes of age-standardized TBL cancer deaths and DALYs. Over the past three decades, the percentage of age-standardized TBL cancer deaths and DALYs attributable to occupational asbestos and silica exposure decreased by 18.24, 6.71 and 20.52%, 4.00% globally, but increased significantly in lower SDI regions, while the burden attributable to occupational diesel engine exhaust exposure increased by 32.76, 37.23% worldwide.

          Conclusions

          Occupational exposure remains an important risk factor for TBL cancer. The burden of TBL cancer attributable to occupational carcinogens showed obvious heterogeneity which decreased in higher SDI but increased in lower SDI regions. The burden of males was significantly higher than females, but the females showed an increasing trend. Occupational exposure to asbestos was the main causes of the burden. Therefore, effective prevention and control measures tailored to local conditions are necessary.

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          Most cited references51

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

            Summary Background In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990–2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0–9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10–24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10–24 years were also in the top ten in the 25–49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50–74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and development investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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              A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

              The Lancet, 380(9859), 2224-2260
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Med
                Ann Med
                Annals of Medicine
                Taylor & Francis
                0785-3890
                1365-2060
                8 May 2023
                2023
                8 May 2023
                : 55
                : 1
                : 2206672
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Institute, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University , Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
                [b ]Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University , Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
                [c ]Zhejiang Provincial Clinical Research Center for Cancer , Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
                [d ]Cancer Center, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors are co-first authors and contributed equally to this work.

                Supplemental data for this article can be accessed online at https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2023.2206672.

                CONTACT Ying Yuan yuanying1999@ 123456zju.edu.cn Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Institute, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University , Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
                Article
                2206672
                10.1080/07853890.2023.2206672
                10167889
                37155297
                2706c14d-4fd3-438a-a1bd-57087bf6543b
                © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 2, Pages: 25, Words: 11980
                Categories
                Research Article
                Oncology

                Medicine
                global burden of disease study,lung cancer,occupational carcinogens,disease burden
                Medicine
                global burden of disease study, lung cancer, occupational carcinogens, disease burden

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