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      The role of classroom- and individual-level teen stereotypes in Chinese adolescents' academic adjustment: A multilevel analysis


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          Adolescence is often portrayed in a negative light in Western culture, with teens being viewed as rebellious and irresponsible. Yet, there is substantial cultural and individual variability in views of teens. The empirical research to date is limited in that it mainly examines whether teen stereotypes are influential at the individual level. Teen stereotypes might also be perpetuated at the classroom level, which may have important implications for adolescent adjustment over time. Focusing on adolescents in Chinese culture where the teen years are often viewed in a positive light, this two-wave longitudinal study employed multi-level analyses to investigate whether stereotypes of adolescence at the classroom level play a role in Chinese adolescents' academic adjustment over time ( N = 785; 55% girls; mean age = 12.96 years). Consistent with prior research on views of teens, the present analyses suggested that teen stereotypes regarding family obligation and school engagement at the individual level predicted adolescents' value of school and self-regulated learning strategies over the seventh grade. More importantly, classroom-level teen stereotypes were also largely predictive of adolescents' value of school and self-regulated learning strategies over time, controlling for their earlier academic adjustment, individual-level teen stereotypes, and classroom-level adjustment. Taken together, these findings indicate that stereotypes of adolescence in classroom or peer settings may contribute to adolescents' academic adjustment during this phase. The findings also provide a potential foundation for interventions aimed at promoting adolescents' positive development via changing teen stereotypes in the classroom.

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          A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.

          C Steele (1997)
          A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
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            A self-report measure of pubertal status: Reliability, validity, and initial norms.

            Puberty is a central process in the complex set of changes that constitutes the transition from childhood to adolescence. Research on the role of pubertal change in this transition has been impeded by the difficulty of assessing puberty in ways acceptable to young adolescents and others involved. Addressing this problem, this paper describes and presents norms for a selfreport measure of pubertal status. The measure was used twice annually over a period of three years in a longitudinal study of 335 young adolescent boys and girls. Data on a longitudinal subsample of 253 subjects are reported. The scale shows good reliability, as indicated by coefficient alpha. In addition, several sources of data suggest that these reports are valid. The availability of such a measure is important for studies, such as those based in schools, in which more direct measures of puberty may not be possible.
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              Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research

              S. Sirin (2005)

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                25 November 2022
                : 13
                [1] 1School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University , Evanston, IL, United States
                [2] 2Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Christy Buchanan, Wake Forest University, United States

                Reviewed by: Shawn Whiteman, Utah State University, United States; Corinna Lorenz, University of Wuppertal, Germany; Nestor Tulagan, University of California, Irvine, United States

                *Correspondence: Yang Qu yangqu@ 123456northwestern.edu

                This article was submitted to Developmental Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2022 Qu, Devakonda, Shi, Yang and Wang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 4, References: 70, Pages: 13, Words: 10172
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                adolescence,academic adjustment,class norms,multilevel analysis,stereotypes


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