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      Anadromy, potamodromy and residency in brown trout Salmo trutta: the role of genes and the environment

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          Abstract

          Brown trout Salmo trutta is endemic to Europe, western Asia and north‐western Africa; it is a prominent member of freshwater and coastal marine fish faunas. The species shows two resident (river‐resident, lake‐resident) and three main facultative migratory life histories (downstream–upstream within a river system, fluvial–adfluvial potamodromous; to and from a lake, lacustrine–adfluvial (inlet) or allacustrine (outlet) potamodromous; to and from the sea, anadromous). River‐residency v. migration is a balance between enhanced feeding and thus growth advantages of migration to a particular habitat v. the costs of potentially greater mortality and energy expenditure. Fluvial–adfluvial migration usually has less feeding improvement, but less mortality risk, than lacustrine–adfluvial or allacustrine and anadromous, but the latter vary among catchments as to which is favoured. Indirect evidence suggests that around 50% of the variability in S. trutta migration v. residency, among individuals within a population, is due to genetic variance. This dichotomous decision can best be explained by the threshold‐trait model of quantitative genetics. Thus, an individual's physiological condition ( e.g., energy status) as regulated by environmental factors, genes and non‐genetic parental effects, acts as the cue. The magnitude of this cue relative to a genetically predetermined individual threshold, governs whether it will migrate or sexually mature as a river‐resident. This decision threshold occurs early in life and, if the choice is to migrate, a second threshold probably follows determining the age and timing of migration. Migration destination (mainstem river, lake, or sea) also appears to be genetically programmed. Decisions to migrate and ultimate destination result in a number of subsequent consequential changes such as parr–smolt transformation, sexual maturity and return migration. Strong associations with one or a few genes have been found for most aspects of the migratory syndrome and indirect evidence supports genetic involvement in all parts. Thus, migratory and resident life histories potentially evolve as a result of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes, which alter relative survival and reproduction. Knowledge of genetic determinants of the various components of migration in S. trutta lags substantially behind that of Oncorhynchus mykiss and other salmonines. Identification of genetic markers linked to migration components and especially to the migration–residency decision, is a prerequisite for facilitating detailed empirical studies. In order to predict effectively, through modelling, the effects of environmental changes, quantification of the relative fitness of different migratory traits and of their heritabilities, across a range of environmental conditions, is also urgently required in the face of the increasing pace of such changes.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                p.prodohl@qub.ac.uk
                Journal
                J Fish Biol
                J. Fish Biol
                10.1111/(ISSN)1095-8649
                JFB
                Journal of Fish Biology
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                0022-1112
                1095-8649
                13 June 2019
                September 2019
                : 95
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1111/jfb.v95.3 )
                : 692-718
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] School of Biological Sciences Queen's University Belfast Belfast UK
                [ 2 ] School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences University College Cork Cork Ireland
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Paulo Prodöhl, Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Nothern Ireland, UK.

                Email: p.prodohl@ 123456qub.ac.uk

                Article
                JFB14005
                10.1111/jfb.14005
                6771713
                31197849
                © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 27, Words: 30042
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: ERC Starting Grant
                Award ID: 639192‐ALH
                Funded by: Science Foundation Ireland
                Award ID: 15/IA/3028
                Award ID: 16/BBSRC/3316
                Funded by: grant‐in‐aid
                Award ID: RESPI/FS/16/01
                Funded by: Environmental Protection Agency (IE)
                Award ID: PhD EPA Award
                Funded by: European Research Council
                Award ID: 639192‐ALH
                Funded by: Inland Fisheries Ireland
                Award ID: Salmo trutta population genetics
                Categories
                Review Paper
                Review Paper
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                jfb14005
                September 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.6.9 mode:remove_FC converted:01.10.2019

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