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      Update on new biologics for intractable eosinophilic asthma: impact of reslizumab

      1 , 2

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove Medical Press

      asthma, eosinophil

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          Abstract

          A small percentage of patients with asthma have uncontrolled symptoms and frequent exacerbations, despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and other agents. It has become clear that different subtypes of this severe, treatment-resistant group exist due to different mechanisms of the disease. All such patients require detailed assessment in specialist centers to characterize the disease and assess treatment adherence. Recently, monoclonal antibodies have become available, which target specific pathways that may contribute to persistent inflammation and asthma exacerbations. These antibodies include those targeting interleukin (IL)-5, which drives eosinophilic inflammation. Reslizumab is a newly licensed antibody that blocks binding of IL-5 to its receptor. Here, we discuss the significance of clinical data of this drug, which show up to 50% reduction in exacerbation rates, together with modest but significant improvements in lung function and quality of life, in those with persistent eosinophilia. The combination of reslizumab with mepolizumab and benralizumab, which also target IL-5, may be a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium in a selected group of patients with severe asthma.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins.

          A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. Clones representing each type of T cell were characterized, and the pattern of lymphokine activities was consistent within each set. The secreted proteins induced by Con A were analyzed by biosynthetic labeling and SDS gel electrophoresis, and significant differences were seen between the two groups of T cell line. Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. Examples of both types of T cell were also specific for or restricted by the I region of the MHC, and the surface marker phenotype of the majority of both types was Ly-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+, Both types of helper T cell could provide help for B cells, but the nature of the help differed. TH1 cells were found among examples of T cell clones specific for chicken RBC and mouse alloantigens. TH2 cells were found among clones specific for mouse alloantigens, fowl gamma-globulin, and KLH. The relationship between these two types of T cells and previously described subsets of T helper cells is discussed.
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            Predominant TH2-like bronchoalveolar T-lymphocyte population in atopic asthma.

            In atopic asthma, activated T helper lymphocytes are present in bronchial-biopsy specimens and bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid, and their production of cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Different patterns of cytokine release are characteristic of certain subgroups of T helper cells, termed TH1 and TH2, the former mediating delayed-type hypersensitivity and the latter mediating IgE synthesis and eosinophilia. The pattern of cytokine production in atopic asthma is unknown. We assessed cells obtained by BAL in subjects with mild atopic asthma and in normal control subjects for the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for interleukin-2, 3, 4, and 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma by in situ hybridization with 32P-labeled complementary RNA. Localization of mRNA to BAL T cells was assessed by simultaneous in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence and by in situ hybridization after immunomagnetic enrichment or depletion of T cells. As compared with the control subjects, the subjects with asthma had more BAL cells per 1000 cell that were positive for mRNA for interleukin-2 (P less than 0.05), 3 (P less than 0.01), 4 (P less than 0.001), and 5 (P less than 0.001) and GM-CSF (P less than 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the number of cells expressing mRNA for interferon gamma. In the subjects with asthma, mRNA for interleukin-4 and 5 was expressed predominantly by T lymphocytes. Atopic asthma is associated with activation in the bronchi of the interleukin-3, 4, and 5 and GM-CSF gene cluster, a pattern compatible with predominant activation of the TH2-like T-cell population.
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              Benralizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 receptor α monoclonal antibody, as add-on treatment for patients with severe, uncontrolled, eosinophilic asthma (CALIMA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

              Benralizumab is a humanised, afucosylated, anti-interleukin-5 receptor α monoclonal antibody that induces direct, rapid, and nearly complete depletion of eosinophils. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of benralizumab as add-on therapy for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma and elevated blood eosinophil counts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                08 May 2018
                : 12
                : 1173-1181
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, University College London, London, UK
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, University College Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Douglas S Robinson, Calle Blanca 17, Dos Torres, 14460, Spain, Email dsrobinson@ 123456allergyandasthma.co.uk
                Article
                dddt-12-1173
                10.2147/DDDT.S109489
                5951215
                © 2018 Sahota and Robinson. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                eosinophil, asthma

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